4 October 2016 Hierarchical imaging of the human knee
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Abstract
Among the clinically relevant imaging techniques, computed tomography (CT) reaches the best spatial resolution. Sub-millimeter voxel sizes are regularly obtained. For investigations on true micrometer level lab-based μCT has become gold standard. The aim of the present study is the hierarchical investigation of a human knee post mortem using hard X-ray μCT. After the visualization of the entire knee using a clinical CT with a spatial resolution on the sub-millimeter range, a hierarchical imaging study was performed using a laboratory μCT system nanotom m. Due to the size of the whole knee the pixel length could not be reduced below 65 μm. These first two data sets were directly compared after a rigid registration using a cross-correlation algorithm. The μCT data set allowed an investigation of the trabecular structures of the bones. The further reduction of the pixel length down to 25 μm could be achieved by removing the skin and soft tissues and measuring the tibia and the femur separately. True micrometer resolution could be achieved after extracting cylinders of several millimeters diameters from the two bones. The high resolution scans revealed the mineralized cartilage zone including the tide mark line as well as individual calcified chondrocytes. The visualization of soft tissues including cartilage, was arranged by X-ray grating interferometry (XGI) at ESRF and Diamond Light Source. Whereas the high-energy measurements at ESRF allowed the simultaneous visualization of soft and hard tissues, the low-energy results from Diamond Light Source made individual chondrocytes within the cartilage visual.
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Georg Schulz, Christian Götz, Hans Deyhle, Magdalena Müller-Gerbl, Irene Zanette, Marie-Christine Zdora, Anna Khimchenko, Peter Thalmann, Alexander Rack, Bert Müller, "Hierarchical imaging of the human knee", Proc. SPIE 9967, Developments in X-Ray Tomography X, 99670R (4 October 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2238089; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2238089
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