3D reconstruction of small objects is used in applications of surface analysis, forensic analysis and tissue reconstruction
in medicine. In this paper, we propose a strategy for the 3D reconstruction of small objects and the identification of some
superficial defects. We applied a technique of projection of structured light patterns, specifically sinusoidal fringes and
an algorithm of phase unwrapping. A CMOS camera was used to capture images and a DLP digital light projector for
synchronous projection of the sinusoidal pattern onto the objects. We implemented a technique based on a 2D flat pattern
as calibration process, so the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the camera and the DLP were defined. Experimental tests
were performed in samples of artificial teeth, coal particles, welding defects and surfaces tested with Vickers indentation.
Areas less than 5cm were studied. The objects were reconstructed in 3D with densities of about one million points per
sample. In addition, the steps of 3D description, identification of primitive, training and classification were implemented
to recognize defects, such as: holes, cracks, roughness textures and bumps. We found that pattern recognition strategies
are useful, when quality supervision of surfaces has enough quantities of points to evaluate the defective region, because
the identification of defects in small objects is a demanding activity of the visual inspection.