13 September 2016 The utility of entanglement swapping in quantum communications
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The nonlocal correlations between quantum states in an entangled system are essential to many quantum communications applications. A basic quantum operation, which permits the distribution of entanglement between two initially uncorrelated systems, is entanglement swapping. Here we present a rigorous formulation of entanglement swapping of any two partially mixed two-qubit states without limiting ourselves to any specific type of state or noise. Further, for two important classes of the input states, Bell diagonal and pure states, we describe how the concurrence of the final state is related to the concurrence of the initial states. First, we consider Bell diagonal states, and find bounds on the concurrence of the final state in terms of the concurrences of the initial states. These bounds are important for communications applications because polarization mode dispersion in fibers produces Bell diagonal states up to a local unitary rotation. Second, we show that swapping pure states occasionally results in a state of higher concurrence than either of the initial states. In addition, we find that two pure states are most likely to be capable of swapping to a state of increased concurrence when the two initial states have similar concurrences. Our analysis offers a completely general framework for investigating the behavior of any pair of two-qubit states when used for entanglement swapping.
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Brian T. Kirby, Brian T. Kirby, Siddhartha Santra, Siddhartha Santra, Vladimir S. Malinovsky, Vladimir S. Malinovsky, Michael Brodsky, Michael Brodsky, } "The utility of entanglement swapping in quantum communications", Proc. SPIE 9980, Quantum Communications and Quantum Imaging XIV, 99800L (13 September 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2237760; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2237760

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