Ebook Topic:
Front Matter
Abstract

Based on the SPIE bestseller The Art of Radiometry by James M. Palmer and Barbara G. Grant, this Field Guideprovides a practical, hands-on approach to the subject that the engineer, scientist, or student can use in real time. Readers of the earlier work will recognize similar topics in condensed form, along with many new figures and a chapter on photometry.

Written from a systems engineering perspective, this book covers topics in optical radiation propagation, material properties, sources, detectors, system components, measurement, calibration, and photometry. Appendices provide material on SI units, conversion factors, source luminance data, and many other subjects. The book's organization and extensive collection of diagrams, tables, and graphs will enable the reader to efficiently identify and apply relevant information to radiometric problems arising amid the demands of today's fast-paced technical environment. I gratefully acknowledge the contributions to my education and career from three professors of Optical Sciences at the University of Arizona, gentlemen all. They are the late Jim Palmer (1937-2007), who mentored me in radiometry for many years and provided me the opportunity to complete The Art of Radiometry; Emeritus Professor Phil Slater, who selected me as a graduate student and trained me in remote sensing, and who continues to encourage and support me; and Eustace Dereniak, who generously shared his knowledge from the very start, provided me my first opportunities to teach, and has strongly supported my career for more than twenty years. To all, my heartfelt thanks.

This book is dedicated to my family and particularly to the memory of my father, William Grant of Chicago, Illinois, a US Navy veteran of WWII who taught me to play the "Garryowen" as soon as my fingers could reach a piano keyboard.

Barbara G. Grant

September 2011

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Grant, Barbara G. (Barbara Geri), 1957-

Field guide to radiometry / Barbara, Grant.

p. cm. – (The field guide series ; FG23)

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 978-0-8194-8827-5

1. Radiation–Measurement. I. Title.

QD117.R3G73 2011

535–dc23

2011033224

Published by

SPIE

P.O. Box 10

Bellingham, Washington 98227-0010 USA

Phone: +1.360.676.3290

Fax: +1.360.647.1445

Email: books@spie.org

Web: http://spie.org

The content of this book reflects the work and thought of the author. Every effort has been made to publish reliable and accurate information herein, but the publisher is not responsible for the validity of the information or for any outcomes resulting from reliance thereon. For the latest updates about this title, please visit the book's page on our website.

Printed in the United States of America.

First printing

Introduction to the Series

Welcome to the SPIE Field Guides—a series of publications written directly for the practicing engineer or scientist. Many textbooks and professional reference books cover optical principles and techniques in depth. The aim of the SPIE Field Guides is to distill this information, providing readers with a handy desk or briefcase reference that provides basic, essential information about optical principles, techniques, or phenomena, including definitions and descriptions, key equations, illustrations, application examples, design considerations, and additional resources. A significant effort will be made to provide a consistent notation and style between volumes in the series.

Each SPIE Field Guide addresses a major field of optical science and technology. The concept of these Field Guides is a format-intensive presentation based on figures and equations supplemented by concise explanations. In most cases, this modular approach places a single topic on a page, and provides full coverage of that topic on that page. Highlights, insights, and rules of thumb are displayed in sidebars to the main text. The appendices at the end of each Field Guide provide additional information such as related material outside the main scope of the volume, key mathematical relationships, and alternative methods. While complete in their coverage, the concise presentation may not be appropriate for those new to the field.

The SPIE Field Guides are intended to be living documents. The modular page-based presentation format allows them to be easily updated and expanded. We are interested in your suggestions for new Field Guide topics as well as what material should be added to an individual volume to make these Field Guides more useful to you. Please contact us at fieldguides@SPIE.org.

John E. Greivenkamp, Series Editor

College of Optical Sciences

The University of Arizona

The Field Guide Series

Keep information at your fingertips with all of the titles in the Field Guide Series:

Field Guide to

Adaptive Optics, Robert Tyson & Benjamin Frazier

Atmospheric Optics, Larry Andrews

Binoculars and Scopes, Paul Yoder, Jr. & Daniel Vukobratovich

Diffractive Optics, Yakov Soskind

Geometrical Optics, John Greivenkamp

Illumination, Angelo Arecchi, Tahar Messadi, & John Koshel

Infrared Systems, Detectors, and FPAs, Second Edition, Arnold Daniels

Interferometric Optical Testing, Eric Goodwin & Jim Wyant

Laser Pulse Generation, Rüdiger Paschotta

Lasers, Rüdiger Paschotta

Microscopy, Tomasz Tkaczyk

Optical Fabrication, Ray Williamson

Optical Fiber Technology, Rüdiger Paschotta

Optical Lithography, Chris Mack

Optical Thin Films, Ronald Willey

Polarization, Edward Collett

Radiometry, Barbara Grant

Special Functions for Engineers, Larry Andrews

Spectroscopy, David Ball

Visual and Ophthalmic Optics, Jim Schwiegerling

Introduction

Based on the SPIE bestseller The Art of Radiometry by James M. Palmer and Barbara G. Grant, this Field Guide provides a practical, hands-on approach to the subject that the engineer, scientist, or student can use in real time. Readers of the earlier work will recognize similar topics in condensed form, along with many new figures and a chapter on photometry.

Written from a systems engineering perspective, this book covers topics in optical radiation propagation, material properties, sources, detectors, system components, measurement, calibration, and photometry. Appendices provide material on SI units, conversion factors, source luminance data, and many other subjects. The book’s organization and extensive collection of diagrams, tables, and graphs will enable the reader to efficiently identify and apply relevant information to radiometric problems arising amid the demands of today’s fast-paced technical environment.

I gratefully acknowledge the contributions to my education and career from three professors of Optical Sciences at the University of Arizona, gentlemen all. They are the late Jim Palmer (1937–2007), who mentored me in radiometry for many years and provided me the opportunity to complete The Art of Radiometry; Emeritus Professor Phil Slater, who selected me as a graduate student and trained me in remote sensing, and who continues to encourage and support me; and Eustace Dereniak, who generously shared his knowledge from the very start, provided me my first opportunities to teach, and has strongly supported my career for more than twenty years. To all, my heartfelt thanks.

This book is dedicated to my family and particularly to the memory of my father, William Grant of Chicago, Illinois, a US Navy veteran of WWII who taught me to play the “Garryowen” as soon as my fingers could reach a piano keyboard.

Barbara G. Grant

September 2011

Table of Contents

Glossary of Symbols and Notation xi

Introduction to Radiometry 1

The Electromagnetic Spectrum 1

The Basics 2

Propagation of Optical Radiation 3

Plane and Solid Angles 3

Projected Area and Projected Solid Angle 4

f/# and Numerical Aperture 5

Radiometric Quantities Summarized 6

Photon Quantities 7

Spectral Radiant Quantities 8

Radiance, Radiant Exitance, and Irradiance 9

Exitance–Radiance Relationship 10

Intensity 11

Isotropic and Lambertian Sources 12

Inverse Square Law of Irradiance 13

Cosine3 and Cosine4 Laws of Irradiance 14

Throughput and Its Invariance 15

Area and Solid Angle Products 16

Basic Radiance and Radiance Invariance 17

The Equation of Radiative Transfer 18

Configuration Factors 19

Power Transfer: Point Source 20

Power Transfer: Extended Source 21

Power Transfer: Field Lens Added 22

Irradiance from a Lambertian Disk 23

Irradiance from a Lambertian Sphere 24

The Integrating Sphere 25

Camera Equation and Image Plane Irradiance 26

Radiometric Properties of Materials 27

Overview of Material Properties 27

Transmission 28

Reflection 29

Absorption and the Conservation of Energy 30

Emission 31

Specular Transmissivity and Reflectivity 32

Single-Surface Illustrations 33

More on Specular Propagation 34

Transmission: Absorbing and Reflecting Materials 35

Materials as Targets 36

Optical Material Selection Considerations 37

Generation of Optical Radiation 38

Planck’s Law 38

Stefan–Boltzmann and Wien Displacement Laws 39

Rayleigh–Jeans Law and Wien Approximation 40

Radiation Laws in Terms of Photons 41

Kirchoff’s Law 42

Natural Sources 43

Lambert–Bouguer–Beer Law and Langley Plot 44

Artificial Sources 45

Luminescent Mechanisms 46

Some Luminescent Sources 47

Detectors of Optical Radiation 48

Detector Types 48

Detector Definitions 49

More Detector Definitions 50

Detector Figures of Merit 51

Noise Concepts and Definitions 52

The Most Unpleasant Noises 53

More Unpleasant Noises 54

Thermal Detectors 55

Thermoelectric Detectors 56

The Bolometer 57

Pyroelectric Detectors 58

Photon Detectors 59

Photoconductive Detectors 60

Photoemissive Detectors 61

Photovoltaic Detectors 62

Photovoltaic Current and Performance 63

Detector Interfacing 64

Single and Multiple Detectors 65

Detector Array Architectures 66

Choosing a Detector 67

Radiometric System Components 68

Choppers and Radiation References 68

Baffles and Cosine Correctors 69

Spectral Separation Mechanisms 70

Prisms and Gratings 71

Filters 72

Calibration and Measurement 73

Radiometric Calibration Basics 73

Radiometric Calibration Philosophy 74

Distant Small Source Calibration 75

Collimators and the Distant Small Source 76

More on Collimators 77

Extended Source Calibrations 78

Other Calibration Methods 79

The Measurement Equation 80

Errors in Measurements 81

Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Measurement Error 82

The Range Equation 83

Radiometric Temperatures 84

Photometry 85

Photometric Quantities 85

Human Visual Response 86

Color 87

Sources and the Eye’s Response 88

Appendices 89

SI Base Quantities, Prefixes, and Uncertainty Reporting 89

SI Base Quantities 90

SI Prefixes 91

Concise Notation and Uncertainty Reporting 92

Physical Constants: 2010 CODATA Recommended Values 93

Source Luminance Values 94

Astronomical Sources 95

Practical Sources 96

More Source Values 97

Illuminance of Various Sources 109

Luminous Intensity Values 110

Astronomical Conversion Factors 112

Solid Angle Relationships

Rays, Stops, and Pupils

Diffraction

Action Spectra and Optical Radiation Regions

Equation Summary

Biography

Glossary of Symbols and Notation

Ap

Projected area

As

Source area

AS

Aperture stop

Asph

Sphere surface area

B

Effective noise bandwidth

BLIP

Background-limited infrared photodetector

BRDF

Bidirectional reflectance distribution function

BTDF

Bidirectional transmittance distribution function

c

Velocity of optical radiation in vacuum

C

Coulomb

C

Capacitance

c1

First radiation constant

c2

Second radiation constant

CCD

Charge-coupled device

CID

Charge-injection device

CMOS

Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor

CTE

Charge-transfer efficiency

d

Distance

D

Detectivity

D

Entrance pupil diameter

D

Specific detectivity

D∗∗

Specific normalized detectivity

Dq*

Specific detectivity in photons

DQE

Detective quantum efficiency

E

Irradiance

Ef

Fermi level

Eg

Gap energy

Eq

Photon irradiance

Eν

Illuminance

f

Focal length

f

Ratio of port area to integrating sphere area

F

Configuration factor

F

Noise factor

f/#

F-number

f/#′

Working f/#

fc

Cutoff frequency

Fc

Chopping factor

FOV

Field of view

FS

Field stop

fT

Thermal cutoff frequency

G

Photoconductive gain

G

Radiant power gain

h

Planck’s constant

H

Heat capacity

H

Radiant exposure

Hq

Photon exposure

Hν

Photometric exposure

I

Radiant intensity

i¯

Average photocurrent due to mean carrier number

Idc

Direct current

IFOV

Instantaneous field of view

in

Noise current

Iq

Photon intensity

is

Signal current

Iv

Luminous intensity

j

1

k

Boltzmann’s constant

K

Thermal conductance

Km

Luminous efficacy (photopic)

Km

Luminous efficacy (scotopic)

Ks

1/f noise source-dependent constant

l

Source maximum linear dimension

L

Radiance

Lq

Photon radiance

LSB

Least significant bit

Lv

Luminance

m

Airmass

m

Grating order number

m

Magnification

M

Radiant exitance

mp

Pupil magnification

Mq

Photon exitance

Mv

Luminous exitance

n

Number of bits in a digital word

n

Refractive index

n

Surface normal vector

N

Mean number of carriers

N

Number of illuminated grating grooves

n¯

Average number of photons

NA

Numerical aperture

ND

Neutral density

NEI

Noise equivalent irradiance

NEP

Noise equivalent power

NF

Noise figure

NP

Entrance pupil

p

Pyroelectric coefficient

Ps

Spontaneous polarization

q

Electronic charge

Q, Qe

Radiant energy

Qp, Qq

Photon energy

Qrp

Resolving power

Qv

Luminous energy

r

Radius of circle or sphere

R

Range

R

Reflectance factor

R

Resistance

Responsivity

RA

Resistance-area product

E

Irradiance responsivity

RL

Detector load resistance

L

Radiance responsivity

q

Photon responsivity

RT

Thermal resistance

Φ

Power responsivity

S

Seebeck coefficient

SNR

Signal-to-noise ratio

t

Time

T

Absolute temperature

T

Throughput

Tc

Curie temperature

Tn

Noise temperature

ν

Velocity of optical radiation in a medium

VB

Detector bias voltage

νj

Johnson noise voltage

νn

Noise voltage

vrms

Root-mean-square voltage

Vs, vs

Signal voltage

V(λ)

Photopic visual response

V(λ)

Scotopic visual response

x

Path length

XP

Exit pupil

X, Y, Z

Tristimulus values based on the 1931 CIE Standard Observer

Z

Impedance

α

Absorptance

α

1/f noise expression constant

α(λ)

Spectral absorption coefficient

β

1/f noise expression constant

β

Temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR)

ε

Emittance

η

Responsive quantum efficiency

θ

Angle of incidence, reflection, refraction

θ

Angle from normal incidence or emittance

Θ1/2

Half-angle of illumination cone

κ(λ)

Spectral extinction coefficient

λ

Wavelength

λ0

Wavelength in vacuum

λc

Cutoff wavelength

μ

Carrier mobility

Π

Peltier coeffficient

ρ

Reflectance

ρp

Polarized reflectivity parallel component

ρs

Polarized reflectivity perpendicular component

ρss

Single-surface reflectivity

σ

Standard deviation

σ

Stefan–Boltzmann constant

σ2

Variance

σe

Electrical conductivity

τ

Time constant

τ

Transmittance

τ0(λ)

Spectral optical thickness

τatm

Atmospheric transmittance

τi

Internal transmittance

τl

Carrier lifetime

τlens

Lens transmittance

τo

Optical transmittance

τp

Polarized transmissivity parallel component

τs

Polarized transmissivity perpendicular component

τss

Single-surface transmissivity

τT

Thermal time constant

ϕ

Rotational angle

ϕ

Work function in a photoemissive detector

ϕ0

Potential barrier height in a photovoltaic detector

Φ

Radiant power

Φq

Photon flux

Φv

Luminous power

ω

Radian frequency (2πf)

ω

Solid angle

Ω

Projected solid angle

Ωo

Unit projected solid angle

TOPIC
13 PAGES

SHARE
Back to Top