Abstract
This front matter contains an introduction, table of contents, and glossary of symbols.

Library of Congress Preassigned Control Number Data

Keller, Christoph U.

Field guide to astronomical instrumentation / Christoph

Keller, Ramon Navarro, Bernhard Brandl.

pages cm. – (The field guide series ; FG32)

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 978-1-62841-177-5 (alk. paper)

1. Astronomical instruments–Handbooks, manuals, etc.

I. Navarro, Ramón

II. Brandl, Bernhard R.

III. Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers.

IV. Title.

QB86.K45 2014

522′.87–dc23

2014009876

Published by

SPIE

P.O. Box 10

Bellingham, Washington 98227-0010 USA

Phone: 360.676.3290

Fax: 360.647.1445

Email: Books@spie.org

www.spie.org

The content of this book reflects the thought of the author(s). Every effort has been made to publish reliable and accurate information herein, but the publisher is not responsible for the validity of the information or for any outcomes resulting from reliance thereon.

Printed in the United States of America.

First printing.

Introduction to the Series

Welcome to the SPIE Field Guides—a series of publications written directly for the practicing engineer or scientist. Many textbooks and professional reference books cover optical principles and techniques in depth. The aim of the SPIE Field Guides is to distill this information, providing readers with a handy desk or briefcase reference that provides basic, essential information about optical principles, techniques, or phenomena, including definitions and descriptions, key equations, illustrations, application examples, design considerations, and additional resources. A significant effort will be made to provide a consistent notation and style between volumes in the series.

Each SPIE Field Guide addresses a major field of optical science and technology. The concept of these Field Guides is a format-intensive presentation based on figures and equations supplemented by concise explanations. In most cases, this modular approach places a single topic on a page, and provides full coverage of that topic on that page. Highlights, insights, and rules of thumb are displayed in sidebars to the main text. The appendices at the end of each Field Guide provide additional information such as related material outside the main scope of the volume, key mathematical relationships, and alternative methods. While complete in their coverage, the concise presentation may not be appropriate for those new to the field.

The SPIE Field Guides are intended to be living documents. The modular page-based presentation format allows them to be updated and expanded. We are interested in your suggestions for new Field Guide topics as well as what material should be added to an individual volume to make these Field Guides more useful to you. Please contact us at fieldguides@SPIE.org.

John E. Greivenkamp, Series Editor

College of Optical Sciences

The University of Arizona

The Field Guide Series

Keep information at your fingertips with the SPIE Field Guides:
  • Adaptive Optics, Second Edition, Robert Tyson & Benjamin Frazier

  • Atmospheric Optics, Larry Andrews

  • Binoculars and Scopes, Paul Yoder, Jr. & Daniel Vukobratovich

  • Diffractive Optics, Yakov Soskind

  • Digital Micro-Optics, Bernard Kress

  • Displacement Measuring Interferometry, Jonathan D. Ellis

  • Fiber Optic Sensors, William Spillman, Jr. & Eric Udd

  • Geometrical Optics, John Greivenkamp

  • Holography, Pierre-Alexandre Blanche

  • Illumination, Angelo Arecchi, Tahar Messadi, & John Koshel

  • Image Processing, Khan M. Iftekharuddin & Abdul Awwal

  • Infrared Systems, Detectors, and FPAs, 2nd Edition, Arnold Daniels

  • Interferometric Optical Testing, Eric Goodwin & Jim Wyant

  • Laser Pulse Generation, Rüdiger Paschotta

  • Lasers, Rüdiger Paschotta

  • Lens Design, Julie Bentley & Craig Olson

  • Lidar, Paul McManamon

  • Linear Systems in Optics, J. Scott Tyo & Andrey Alenin

  • Microscopy, Tomasz Tkaczyk

  • Nonlinear Optics, Peter Powers

  • Optical Fabrication, Ray Williamson

  • Optical Fiber Technology, Rüdiger Paschotta

  • Optical Lithography, Chris Mack

  • Optical Thin Films, Ronald Willey

  • Optomechanical Design and Analysis, Katie Schwertz & James Burge

  • Physical Optics, Daniel Smith

  • Polarization, Edward Collett

  • Probability, Random Processes, and Random Data Analysis, Larry C. Andrews & Ronald L. Phillips

  • Radiometry, Barbara Grant

  • Special Functions for Engineers, Larry Andrews

  • Spectroscopy, David Ball

  • Terahertz Sources, Detectors, and Optics, Créidhe O’Sullivan & J. Anthony Murphy

  • Visual and Ophthalmic Optics, Jim Schwiegerling

Field Guide to Astronomical Instrumentation

This Field Guide to Astronomical Instrumentation is the one book that the three of us would want to carry with us if we had to single-handedly design an astronomical instrument on a remote mountain top. To keep it concise, it focuses on the ultraviolet to infrared wavelength range. The Field Guide is not intended to serve as a textbook, but as a handy desktop reference to be found in the labs and offices of instrument builders.

This book contains information on a wide range of topics, from fundamental physics to project management, and from technical concepts to material properties. Only the most important concepts and equations are presented here. In many areas, dedicated SPIE Field Guides discuss particular topics in much more detail. While we tried to maintain consistency with other volumes in this series, we wrote this Field Guide in the language that instrumental astronomers use, which might sometimes look strange to people working in other areas.

A Field Guide that strives to cover such a wide variety of topics will naturally overlook some potentially relevant topics. We look forward to suggestions from our readers on how to improve this Field Guide for its next edition.

Last but not least, we greatly appreciate the continuous support of our families in this endeavor.

Christoph U. Keller

Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, The Netherlands

Ramon Navarro

NOVA Optical & Infrared Instrumentation Division at ASTRON, The Netherlands

Bernhard R. Brandl

Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, The Netherlands

Table of Contents

Glossary of Symbols and Acronyms xi

General Optics 1

Refraction, Reflection, and Transmission 1

Polarization 2

Brewster Angle and Total Internal Reflection 3

Images, Pupils, and Beams 4

Aberrations 5

Diffraction 6

Point-Spread Function 7

Modulation Transfer Function 8

Spectral Transfer Function 9

Optical Elements 10

Windows 10

Lenses 11

Mirrors 12

Filters 13

Colored Glass Filters 14

Interference Filters 15

Coatings 16

Astronomical Bandpass Filters 17

Prisms 18

Gratings 19

Polarizers 20

Crystal Polarizers 21

Waveplates 22

Optical Fibers 23

Detectors 24

Detector Overview 24

Intrinsic Photoconductors 25

CCD and CMOS Detectors 26

Extrinsic and Stressed Photoconductors 27

BIB Detectors and (Avalanche) Photodiodes 28

Bolometers 29

Coherent (Heterodyne) Detectors 30

CCD and CMOS Readouts 31

Infrared Array Readouts 32

Detector Noise and Artifacts 33

Detector Radiation Effects in Space 34

Detector Flat Fielding 35

Telescopes and Imagers 36

Telescopes 36

Correctors and Wide-Field Imagers 37

Focal Reducers 38

Reimaging Optics 39

High-Resolution Imagers 40

Spectrographs 41

Spectrograph Overview 41

Single-Slit Spectrometer 42

Echelle Spectrometers 43

Slitless Spectrometers 44

Fabry–Pérot Interferometer 45

Fourier Transform Spectrometer 46

Integral Field Spectrometer 47

Multi-object Spectrometer 48

OH-Suppression Spectrographs 49

Spectral Data Analysis 50

Polarimeters 51

Rotating Waveplate Polarimeters 51

Liquid Crystal Polarimeters 52

Spectral Modulation Polarimeters 53

Interferometers 54

Interferometer Principle and Angular Resolution 54

Delay Lines 55

Beam Combiners 56

Fringe Visibility 57

Fringe Tracking and Closure Phase 58

Aperture Synthesis and (u, v) Plane 59

Field of View and Sensitivity 60

Image Processing 61

Coronagraphs 62

Focal-Plane Coronagraphs 62

Pupil-Plane Coronagraphs 63

Space Coronagraphs 64

Adaptive Optics 65

Adaptive Optics 65

Atmospheric Turbulence: Seeing 66

Wavefront Sensors 67

Deformable Mirrors 68

Adaptive Optics Control 69

Laser Guide Stars 70

Operation Modes 71

Optical Design 72

Optical Design Principles 72

Design Approach 73

Ray Tracing 74

Optimization 75

Tolerance Analysis 76

Stray Light Control and Baffles 77

Optomechanics 78

Packaging 78

Optics Mounts 79

Mechanisms 80

Actuators and Motors 81

Sensors 82

Mechanical Engineering for Space 83

Vacuum and Cryogenics 84

Dewars 84

Cooling Methods 85

Thermal Models 86

Thermal Effects in Space 87

Software and Electronics 88

Control 88

Instrument Control System 89

Data Handling 90

Data Transfer from Space 91

Data Analysis Overview 92

Electronics: Cabling 93

Shielding 94

Systems Engineering 95

Systems Engineering: Requirements Definition 95

Block Diagrams 96

Interface Control 97

Error Budgets 98

Noise and its Distribution 99

Signal-to-Noise Ratio 100

Instrument Sensitivity and Integration Time 101

Signal Sampling 102

Project Management 103

Technology Development 104

Risk Management 105

Quality Management 106

Manufacturing, Assembly, Integration, and Testing 107

Optics Manufacturing 107

Optics Testing 108

Alignment 109

Instrument Commissioning 110

Operations and Maintenance 111

Appendices 112

Optical Material Properties 112

Mirror Substrate Material Properties 113

Mechanical Material Properties 114

Material Selection 115

ISO 10110 Optical Drawing Standard 116

ECSS 117

Equation Summary 118

Bibliography 125

Index 127

Glossary of Symbols and Acronyms

1D, 2D, 3D

One-, two-, or three-dimensional system

4QPM

Four-quadrant phase mask

A

Absorption

A

Surface area

A

Telescope aperture

A(u,v)

Amplitude of aperture function

AC

Alternating current

ADC

Analog-to-digital converter

ADC

Atmospheric dispersion corrector

AG

Aplanatic Gregorian

AIT

Assembly, integration, and testing

AIV

Assembly, integration, and verification

AO

Adaptive optics

APD

Apodizing phase plate

APP

Avalanche photodiode

AR

Anti-reflection

B

Baseline of an interferometer

B

Bias frame

BIB

Blocked-impurity-band (detectors)

BLIP

Background-limited performance

BS

Beamsplitter

CC

Closed cycle cooler

CCD

Charge-coupled device

CMOS

Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor

CNC

Computer numerical control

CP

Closure phase

CTE

Charge transfer efficiency

CTE

Coefficient of thermal expansion

CWL

Center wavelength

d

Actuator spacing

D

Dark frame

d

Diameter

D

Diameter

d

Distance

d

Grating groove spacing

d

Lens thickness

D

Telescope diameter

DC

Direct current

DHS

Data handling system

DQE

Detective quantum efficiency

DSN

Deep space network

E

Electrical field

E

Energy

e

Error signal

e

Jones vector

ECSS

European Cooperation for Space Standardization

Eg

Bandgap energy

ELT

Extremely Large Telescope

EMC

Electromagnetic compatibility

EMI

Electromagnetic interference

ESA

European Space Agency

ESO

European Southern Observatory

ETC

Exposure time calculator

F

Finesse

F

Flat-field frame

F

Flux

f

Focal length

F

Focal ratio, f-number

f

Frequency

F

Fresnel number

F12

View factor

FDR

Final design review

FEM

Finite element model

FFBD

Functional Flow Block Diagram

fG

Greenwood frequency

FLC

Ferro-electric liquid crystals

FSR

Free spectral range

FTS

Fourier transform spectrometer

FWHM

Full width at half maximum

g

Gain

G

Strehl ratio gain

gD

Derivative gain in a PID controller

gI

Integral gain in a PID controller

gP

Proportional gain in a PID controller

GLAO

Ground-layer adaptive optics

gP

Proportional gain in a PID controller

GR

Generation-recombination

h

Height of turbulence layer

H

Near-IR atmospheric band

HEB

Hot electron bolometer

HGA

High-gain antenna

I

Image

I

Intensity

IBF

Ion beam figuring

ICD

Interface control document

ICS

Instrument control system

ID

Dirty image

IFS

Integral field spectrometer

IFU

Integral field unit

IR

Infrared

IRR

Integration readiness review

J

Jones matrix

J

Near-IR atmospheric band

J0

Zeroth-order Bessel function

J1

First-order Bessel function

JWST

James Webb Space Telescope

k

Angular frequency

K

Conic constant

K

Near-IR atmospheric band

K

Temperature in Kelvin

k

Wave number

kn

Normalized angular frequency

L

Grating width

L

Maximum path length difference

L2

Second Lagrangian point

LCVR

Liquid crystal variable retarders

LGS

Laser guide star

LHe

Liquid helium

LN2

Liquid nitrogen

LO

Local oscillator

LSST

Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

LVDT

Linear variable differential transformer

m

Grating order, order of diffraction

M

Mueller matrix

mbar

Millibar pressure

MCAO

Multi-conjugate adaptive optics

MEMS

Micro-electro-mechanical system

MKID

Microwave kinetic inductance detector

MLI

Multi-layer isolation

MOAO

Multi-object adaptive optics

MOS

Multi-object spectrometer

MTF

Modulation transfer function

n

Index of refraction

n

Noise

N

Number of actuators

N

Number of illuminated grooves

n

Number of photons

N

Number of telescopes

NA

Numerical aperture

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

neff

Effective index of refraction

NGS

Natural guide star

nm

Index of refraction of medium

np

number of photons per m2

ns

Index of refraction of substrate

o

Object

OCS

Observatory control system

OPD

Optical path difference

OTCCD

Orthogonal-transfer CCD

OTF

Optical transfer function

P

Degree of polarization

p

Point spread function

P

Poke matrix

P

Pressure

P(v)

Instrumental profile

P(x,μ)

Probability for value x around a mean μ

PDR

Preliminary design review

PEM

Piezo-elastic modulator

PIAA

Phase-induced amplitude apodization

PID

Proportional-integral-derivative

PL

Degree of linear polarization

PS

Point source (diffraction limited)

PSF

Point spread function

Pt100, Pt1000

Platinum temperature sensor

PTF

Phase transfer function

PVA

Polyvinyl alcohol

Q

Heat transfer

Q

Stokes Q

QA

Quality assurance

QC

Quality control

QMS

Quality management system

r

Radial distance

R

Radius of curvature

R

Reconstructor

R

Reflectivity

R

Spectral resolution

R&D

Research and development

r0

Fried’s parameter

RAM

Risk assessment matrix

RAMS

Risk assessment and method statement

RC

Ritchey–Chrétien (telescope)

RFI

Radio frequency interference

RMS

Root mean square

ROI

Region of interest

rp

Reflection amplitude for p-polarization

rs

Reflection amplitude for s-polarization

RVDT

Rotary variable differential transformer

RX, RY, RZ

Rotation around X, Y, Z coordinates

S

Science frame

s

Sensor data

S

Signal

s

Stokes vector

SH

Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor

Si

Silicon

SIS

Superconductor–insulator–superconductor

SL

Seeing limited

SNR

Signal-to-noise ratio

STEP

Standard for exchange of product data

STF

Spectral transfer function

SUR

Sample-up-the-ramp

T

Temperature

t

Thickness

t

Time

T

Transmission

T1, T2

Telescopes

TCS

Telescope control system

tD

Dark frame exposure time

TDRSS

Tracking and data relay satellite system

TES

Transition edge sensor

tF

Flat-field frame exposure time

TIR

Total internal reflection

TIS

Total integrated scatter

TLR

Top-level requirements

TMA

Three-mirror anastigmat

tp

Transmission amplitude for p -polarization

TRL

Technology readiness level

tS

Science frame exposure time

ts

Transmission amplitude for s-polarization

TX, TY, TZ

Translation in X, Y, Z coordinates

u

Control signal

(u,v)

Coordinates in Fourier space

U

Stokes U

UV

Ultraviolet

V

Fringe visibility

V

Stokes V

v

Wind speed

VPH

Volume phase hologram

W

Watt

WBS

Work breakdown structure

WFS

Wavefront sensor

Wi

Weighting coefficient

x

Path-length difference

X, Y, Z

X, Y, Z coordinates

y

Actuator position

y

Distance from field center

Y

Yield strength

z

Surface zag

z

Zenith angle

α

Linear polarization orientation

α

Absorption coefficient

α

Prism apex angle

α

Incident angle on grating

β

Reflected angle on grating

γ

Groove center to edge phase difference

δ

Phase change on total internal reflection

δ

Retardation in birefringent material

δ

Dispersion angle

δ

Angle of linear polarization

Δ

OPD in an interferometer

ΔλFWHM

Filter transmission profile FWHM

Δλ

Spectral resolution element

ε

Emissivity

η

Relative grating efficiency

η

Throughput

θ

Half-angle

θ

Position or rotation angle

θ

Angular resolution in radians

θB

Brewster angle

θB

Blaze angle

θi

Angle of incidence

θi

Refracted angle of incidence

θisoplanatic

Isoplanatic angle

θo

Angle of dispersed beam

θr

Angle of reflected beam

θt

Angle of transmitted beam

λ

Wavelength

λB

Blaze wavelength

λc

Center wavelength

λc

Cutoff wavelength

λfsr

Free spectral range

μm

micrometer

ν

Frequency

σ

Stefan Boltzmann constant

σ

Standard deviation

σcontrol2

Control system lag induced variance

σDM2

Fitting error induced variance

σoffaxis2

Anisoplanatism wavefront variance

σtotal2

Total wavefront variance

σWFS2

Wavefront sensor induced variance

τ

Internal transmission

τ

Frequency in Nyquist sampling

τi

Internal transmission

τs

Servo lag time

τ0

Atmospheric coherence time

ϕ0

Intrinsic phase

ϕobs

Observed phase

ϕatmos

Phase shifted by atmospheric effects

ϕs

Angular slit width

φ(u,v)

Phase of aperture function

φ

Wedge angle

ω

Angular frequency

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