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Abstract
This section contains the bibliography, index, and authors' bios.

Bibliography

General

1 

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2 

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3 

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4 

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5 

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6 

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Astronomical Use

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11 

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12 

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13 

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14 

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15 

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16 

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17 

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18 

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Historical

19 

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20 

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21 

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22 

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23 

Rohan, A., A Guide to Handheld Military Binoculars, Optical Press, Bradbury, CA (2001).Google Scholar

24 

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25 

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Vision

26 

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27 

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28 

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29 

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30 

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31 

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32 

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33 

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34 

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35 

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Design

36 

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37 

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38 

Fraser, D. B., “Design of a low cost, high magnification, passively stabilized monocular, the Stedi-Eye,” Proc. SPIE 39, 251, (1973).Google Scholar

39 

Freeman, M. H. and Freeman, D. “Innovative binocular design,”Proc. SPIE 1780, 711, (1993).Google Scholar

40 

Giles, M. K., “Aberration tolerances for visual optical systems,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67(5), 634, (1977).Google Scholar

41 

Home, R., “Binocular summation and its implications in the collimation of binocular instruments,” Proc. SPIE 98, 72, (1976).Google Scholar

42 

Jacobs, D. H., Fundamentals of Optical Engineering, McGrawHill, New York (1943).Google Scholar

43 

König, A. and Köhler, H. Die Fernrohre and Entfernungmesser, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1959).Google Scholar

44 

Levi, L. and Reichert, A. “Roof angle error on modulation transfer function and spread function,” Appl. Opt. 27(5), 915, (1988).Google Scholar

45 

Mahan, A. I. and Price, E. E. “Diffraction pattern deterioration by roof prisms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40(10), 664, (1950).Google Scholar

46 

Mahan, A. I., “Focal plane anomalies in roof prisms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35(10), 623, (1945).Google Scholar

47 

Martin, S., “Survey of glare measurements in optical instruments,” Proc. SPIE 274, 288, (1981).Google Scholar

48 

Mouroulis, P., Visual Instrumentation, McGraw-Hill, New York (1999).Google Scholar

49 

Osipova, L. P., “Stabilization of handheld optical instruments,”Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 49(2), 118, (1982).Google Scholar

50 

Ostrovskaya, M. A., “Allowable deviations from parallelism for the optical axes of binoculars,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 45, 613, (1978).Google Scholar

51 

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52 

Quammen et al., “Telescope Eyepiece Assembly with Static and Dynamic Bellows-Type Seal,” U.S. Patent 3,246,563 (1966).Google Scholar

53 

Rosendahl, G. R., “Tolerances for roof prisms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.49, 830, (1959).Google Scholar

54 

Rutten, H. G. J. and van Venrooij, M. A. M. Telescope Optics, Willman-Bell, Inc. (2002).Google Scholar

55 

Seil, K., “Progress in binocular design,” Proc. SPIE 1533, 48(1991) [doi:10.1117/12.48843].Google Scholar

56 

Smith, W., “Techniques for First-Order Layout,” OSA Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed., Vol. I, Part 9, “Optical design techniques,” Ch. 32, McGraw-Hill, New York (1995).Google Scholar

57 

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58 

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59 

Wiley, R. R., “Eliminating stray light in Cassegrain telescopes,” Sky & Telescope 232 (April), (1963).Google Scholar

60 

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Adjustment and Repair

61 

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62 

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63 

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64 

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65 

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66 

Yoder, P. R.Jr., “Two new lightweight military binoculars,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50(5), (1960).Google Scholar

Performance

67 

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68 

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69 

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70 

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71 

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72 

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73 

Hoffman, H. E., “The visibility range when observing an aircraft with and without field-glasses,” Opt. Acta 19(5), 463, (1972).Google Scholar

74 

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75 

Marriott, F. H. C., “Visual acuity using binoculars,” Opt. Acta19, 385, (1972).Google Scholar

76 

McDowell, M. W., “Optical properties of some 8 × 30 binoculars,”Optik 58(3), 203, (1979).Google Scholar

77 

Merlitz, H., “Distortion of binoculars revisited: does the sweet spot exist?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 27(1), 50, (2010).Google Scholar

78 

Osipova, L. P., “A quantitative estimate of the effect of the light scattering of a viewing instrument on landscape visibility,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 42(4), 191, (1975).Google Scholar

79 

Osipova, L. P., “Viewing efficiency in telescopes,” Sov. J. Opt. Tech. 48(4), 196, (1981).Google Scholar

80 

Osipova, L. P., Gaykovich V. V. and Matveyeva, S. N. “The effect of light transmission of a viewing instrument on landscape visibility,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 40(12), 733, (1973).Google Scholar

81 

Osipova, L. P., “Search for objects in a sector during telescope viewing,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44(2), 72, (1977).Google Scholar

82 

Ostrovskaya, M., “The efficiency of visual instruments over the field of view,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 40(2), 91, (1973).Google Scholar

83 

Patrick, F. B., “The efficiency of handheld binoculars,” Optik 33, 494, (1971).Google Scholar

84 

Vukobratovich, D., “Binocular performance and design,” Proc. SPIE 1168, 338, (1989).Google Scholar

85 

Young, A. T., “Seeing: Its cause and cure,” Astrophysical J. 189, 587, (1974).Google Scholar

Astronomical Scope Design and Performance

86 

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87 

Garstang, R. H., “New formulae for optimum magnification and telescope limiting magnitude,” J. Royal Astron. Soc. Canada 93, 80, (1999).Google Scholar

88 

Schaefer, B. E., “Telescopic limiting magnitudes,” PASP 102, 212, (1990).Google Scholar

89 

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90 

Sidgwick, J. B., Amateur Astronomers Handbook, Faber and Faber, London (1958).Google Scholar

91 

Texereau, J., How to Make a Telescope, 2nd ed., Willmann-Bell, Inc., Richmond, VA (1984).Google Scholar

92 

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fx14-5.jpg Paul Yoder (BS Physics, Juniata College, 1947; MS Physics, Pennsylvania State University, 1950) began his career in optical engineering in 1948 under the guidance of Prof. David Rank in the Spectroscopy Laboratory at Penn State. He was employed for 10 years in the Optical Design Department of the U.S. Army’s Frankford Arsenal and then worked for 25 years on a variety of aerospace optical systems programs at Perkin-Elmer Corp. Following retirement in 1986, he was an optical engineering consultant, largely in the development of excimer laser recontouring of the human cornea for vision correction. He is a Fellow of SPIE and the OSA, has taught many short courses in optomechanical engineering for SPIE, and authored several books on optomechanics.

fx14-6.jpg Daniel Vukobratovich is currently a Senior Principal Multi-Disciplinary Engineer at Raytheon Systems in Tucson, Arizona. Prior to Raytheon, he worked for fifteen years at the Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona, where he still holds an adjunct faculty position. His primary field of interest is optomechanical design. He has authored over 50 papers, including chapters on optomechanics in standard reference works such as the IR Handbook and CRC Handbook of Optomechanics. He has taught optomechanics in 12 different countries, consulted for over 40 different companies, and holds several patents. He is a member and Fellow of SPIE, and he has received an IR-100 for work on metal matrix composite optical materials.

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