Abstract
This section includes the series introduction, series list, preface, table of contents, and glossary of terms and acronyms.

Introduction to the Series

Welcome to the SPIE Field Guides—a series of publications written directly for the practicing engineer or scientist. Many textbooks and professional reference books cover optical principles and techniques in depth. The aim of the SPIE Field Guides is to distill this information, providing readers with a handy desk or briefcase reference that provides basic, essential information about optical principles, techniques, or phenomena, including definitions and descriptions, key equations, illustrations, application examples, design considerations, and additional resources. A significant effort will be made to provide a consistent notation and style between volumes in the series.

Each SPIE Field Guide addresses a major field of optical science and technology. The concept of these Field Guides is a format-intensive presentation based on figures and equations supplemented by concise explanations. In most cases, this modular approach places a single topic on a page, and provides full coverage of that topic on that page. Highlights, insights, and rules of thumb are displayed in sidebars to the main text. The appendices at the end of each Field Guide provide additional information such as related material outside the main scope of the volume, key mathematical relationships, and alternative methods. While complete in their coverage, the concise presentation may not be appropriate for those new to the field.

The SPIE Field Guides are intended to be living documents. The modular page-based presentation format allows them to be updated and expanded. We are interested in your suggestions for new Field Guide topics as well as what material should be added to an individual volume to make these Field Guides more useful to you. Please contact us at fieldguides@SPIE.org.

John E. Greivenkamp, Series Editor

College of Optical Sciences

The University of Arizona

The Field Guide Series

Keep information at your fingertips with the SPIE Field Guides:
  • Adaptive Optics, Second Edition, Robert K. Tyson and Benjamin W. Frazier

  • Astronomical Instrumentation, Christoph U. Keller, Ramon Navarro, and Bernhard R. Brandl

  • Atmospheric Optics, Second Edition, Larry C. Andrews

  • Binoculars and Scopes, Paul R. Yoder, Jr. and Daniel Vukobratovich

  • Colorimetry and Fundamental Color Modeling, Jennifer D. T. Kruschwitz

  • Crystal Growth, Ashok K. Batra and Mohan D. Aggarwal

  • Diffractive Optics, Yakov G. Soskind

  • Digital Micro-Optics, Bernard Kress

  • Displacement Measuring Interferometry, Jonathan D. Ellis

  • Fiber Optic Sensors, William Spillman, Jr. and Eric Udd

  • Geometrical Optics, John E. Greivenkamp

  • Holography, Pierre-Alexandre Blanche

  • Illumination, Angelo Arecchi, Tahar Messadi, and R. John Koshel

  • Image Processing, Khan M. Iftekharuddin and Abdul Awwal

  • Infrared Optics, Materials, and Radiometry, Arnold Daniels

  • Infrared Systems, Detectors, and FPAs, Third Edition, Arnold Daniels

  • Interferometric Optical Testing, Eric P. Goodwin and James C. Wyant

    Laser Pulse Generation, Rüdiger Paschotta

  • Lasers, Rüdiger Paschotta

  • Lens Design, Julie Bentley and Craig Olson

  • Lidar, Paul McManamon

  • Linear Systems in Optics, J. Scott Tyo and Andrey S. Alenin

  • Microscopy, Tomasz S. Tkaczyk

  • Molded Optics, Alan Symmons and Michael Schaub

  • Nonlinear Optics, Peter E. Powers

  • Optical Fabrication, Ray Williamson

  • Optical Fiber Technology, Rüdiger Paschotta

  • Optical Lithography, Chris A. Mack

  • Optical Thin Films, Ronald R. Willey

  • Optomechanical Design and Analysis, Katie Schwertz and James H. Burge

  • Physical Optics, Daniel G. Smith

  • Polarization, Edward Collett

  • Probability, Random Processes, and Random Data Analysis, Larry. C. Andrews and Ronald L. Phillips

  • Radiometry, Barbara G. Grant

  • Special Functions for Engineers, Larry C. Andrews

  • Spectroscopy, David W. Ball

  • Terahertz Sources, Detectors, and Optics, Créidhe M. O’Sullivan and J. Anthony Murphy

  • Visual and Ophthalmic Optics, Jim Schwiegerling

Field Guide to Colorimetry and Fundamental Color Modeling

The content for this Field Guide to Colorimetry and Fundamental Color Modeling came from the last class that Professor David MacAdam taught on colorimetry at the University of Rochester’s Institute of Optics (1988) and the many wonderful, more recent, graduate classes at Rochester Institute of Technology’s program of Color Science at the Munsell Color Science Laboratory. The material is a conglomeration of several excellent courses: Color Measurement, Advanced Colorimetry, Color Modeling, Color Appearance, and the laboratories associated with each. It was impossible to cover all topics to their full extent.

I would like to give special acknowledgment to Dr. Jim Schwiegerling at the University of Arizona’s College of Optical Sciences for referring me to the powers that be at SPIE (series editor Dr. John Greivencamp). Thanks for suggesting that I should be the one to write a Field Guide about color. It was truly a joy to be involved.

I am also grateful to have had Dr. Roy S. Berns as my Ph.D. advisor in color science. His past advice for writing succinctly was of great value for this endeavor. He is not only a great color scientist and advisor, but also a sincere confidant and friend.

This Field Guide is dedicated to my mom and dad, Bonnie and Joseph Traylor; my husband, Dr. Brian Kruschwitz; and my children, Adam and Helen. They cheer me up when I am blue, and always keep life colorful.

Jennifer D. T. Kruschwitz

Institute of Optics

University of Rochester

Table of Contents

Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

A

Absorptance

A

Illuminant A

a

Ink coverage

a eff

Effective ink coverage

AM

Amplitude modulation

ANLAB

Adams–Nickerson uniform color space

b

Sample thickness

B

Illuminant B

BRDF

Bidirectional reflection function

C

Dye concentration

C

Illuminant C

Cab*

CIELAB chroma (polar) coordinate

CAT

Chromatic adaptation transform

CCT

Correlated color temperature

CIE

Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage

CMF

Color matching functions

CMM

Color management module

CMY

Subtractive primaries

coth

Hyperbolic cotangent

cp

Pigment (tint) concentration

CRI

Color rendering index

cw

White concentration

d

Detector

D

Daylight illuminant

DE2000

2000 CIELAB color difference

E

Equal energy

E

Illuminant E

F

Fluorescent illuminant

FM

Frequency modulation

g 11, g 12, g 22

MacAdam ellipse g-factors

hab*

CIELAB hue angle (polar) coordinate

ICC

International Color Consortium

i(λ)

Detector signal

I J

Reflected illumination

I o

Incident illumination

k

Normalizing constant for Y

k

Unit absorption

K

Absorption coefficient

K

Black

K

Kelvin

K 1

Fresnel reflectance

K 2

Exiting diffuse reflectance

k L , k C , k H

ΔE94* parametric functions

K m

Luminous efficacy

K-M

Kubelka–Munk

k w

White unit absorption

L* , a* , b*

CIELAB Cartesian coordinates

L λ

Spectral radiance

LUT

Look-up tables

L* , u* , v*

CIELUV coordinates

MAT

Material adjustment transform

M CAT 02

CAT02 matrix

MCS

Material connection space

M VK

von Kries matrix

NCS

Natural Color System

NIST

National Institute of Standards and Technology

P

Neugebauer primary

PCS

Profile connection space

p e

Excitation purity

PRD

Perfect reflecting diffuser

R

Reflectance

Rg

Substrate reflectance

r¯ , g¯ , b¯

Display color matching functions

R, G, B

Red, green, and blue scalars

RGB

Additive primaries

Rλ , i

Internal reflectance

Rλ , m

Measured reflectance

s

Unit scatter

S

Scattering coefficient

S 1, S 2

Slit width

S L , S C , S H

ΔE94* weighting functions

SPD

Spectral power distribution

sRGB

Standard RGB

sw

White unit scatter

T

Transmittance

TCS

Test color samples

T λ , i

Internal transmittance

TRC

Tone reproduction curve

UCS

Uniform Chromaticity Scales

u′, v

1976 UCS coordinates

V(λ)

Photopic spectrum

V′(λ)

Scotopic spectrum

W, p, t

Waypoint coordinates

X

Layer length

x, y, z

1931 CIE chromaticity coordinates

x¯ , y¯ , z¯

1931 CIE 2-deg color matching functions

x¯10 , y¯10 , z¯10

1964 CIE 10-deg color matching functions

X, Y, Z

CIE tristimulus values

X n , Y n , Z n

White point tristimulus values

αλ

Absorptivity

ΔEab*

CIELAB basic color difference

ΔE94*

1994 CIELAB color difference

ΔE00

2000 CIELAB color difference

ΔHab*

CIELAB hue angle difference

Φ(λ)

Radiation from a light source

λ

Wavelength

ρ

Upward or downward light flux

θ i

Incident angle

θ r

Reflected angle

𝔛 , 𝔜 ,

Three-dimensional unit plane

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