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Front Matter
Abstract
This section includes the introduction to the series, series list, preface, acknowledgments, table of contents, and the glossary of symbols and notation.

Introduction to the Series

Welcome to the SPIE Field Guides—a series of publications written directly for the practicing engineer or scientist. Many textbooks and professional reference books cover optical principles and techniques in depth. The aim of the SPIE Field Guides is to distill this information, providing readers with a handy desk or briefcase reference that provides basic, essential information about optical principles, techniques, or phenomena, including definitions and descriptions, key equations, illustrations, application examples, design considerations, and additional resources. A significant effort will be made to provide a consistent notation and style between volumes in the series.

Each SPIE Field Guide addresses a major field of optical science and technology. The concept of these Field Guides is a format-intensive presentation based on figures and equations supplemented by concise explanations. In most cases, this modular approach places a single topic on a page, and provides full coverage of that topic on that page. Highlights, insights, and rules of thumb are displayed in sidebars to the main text. The appendices at the end of each Field Guide provide additional information such as related material outside the main scope of the volume, key mathematical relationships, and alternative methods. While complete in their coverage, the concise presentation may not be appropriate for those new to the field.

The SPIE Field Guides are intended to be living documents. The modular page-based presentation format allows them to be updated and expanded. We are interested in your suggestions for new Field Guide topics as well as what material should be added to an individual volume to make these Field Guides more useful to you. Please contact us at fieldguides@SPIE.org.

John E. Greivenkamp, Series Editor

College of Optical Sciences

The University of Arizona

The Field Guide Series

Keep information at your fingertips with the SPIE Field Guides:
  • Adaptive Optics, Second Edition, Robert K. Tyson and Benjamin W. Frazier

  • Astronomical Instrumentation, Christoph U. Keller, Ramon Navarro, and Bernhard R. Brandl

  • Atmospheric Optics, Second Edition, Larry C. Andrews

  • Binoculars and Scopes, Paul R. Yoder, Jr. and Daniel Vukobratovich

  • Crystal Growth, Ashok K. Batra and Mohan D. Aggarwal

  • Diffractive Optics, Yakov G. Soskind

  • Digital Micro-Optics, Bernard Kress

  • Displacement Measuring Interferometry, Jonathan D. Ellis

  • Fiber Optic Sensors, William Spillman, Jr. and Eric Udd

  • Geometrical Optics, John E. Greivenkamp

  • Holography, Pierre-Alexandre Blanche

  • Illumination, Angelo Arecchi, Tahar Messadi, and R. John Koshel

  • Image Processing, Khan M. Iftekharuddin and Abdul Awwal

  • Infrared Systems, Detectors, and FPAs, Third Edition, Arnold Daniels

  • Interferometric Optical Testing, Eric P. Goodwin and James C. Wyant

  • Laser Pulse Generation, Rüdiger Paschotta

  • Lasers, Rüdiger Paschotta

  • Lens Design, Julie Bentley and Craig Olson

  • Lidar, Paul McManamon

  • Linear Systems in Optics, J. Scott Tyo and Andrey S. Alenin

  • Microscopy, Tomasz S. Tkaczyk

  • Molded Optics, Alan Symmons and Michael Schaub

  • Nonlinear Optics, Peter E. Powers

  • Optical Fabrication, Ray Williamson

  • Optical Fiber Technology, Rüdiger Paschotta

  • Optical Lithography, Chris A. Mack

  • Optical Thin Films, Ronald R. Willey

  • Optomechanical Design and Analysis, Katie Schwertz and James H. Burge

  • Physical Optics, Daniel G. Smith

  • Polarization, Edward Collett

  • Probability, Random Processes, and Random Data Analysis, Larry C. Andrews and Ronald L. Phillips

  • Radiometry, Barbara G. Grant

  • Special Functions for Engineers, Larry C. Andrews

  • Spectroscopy, David W. Ball

  • Terahertz Sources, Detectors, and Optics, Créidhe M. O’Sullivan and J. Anthony Murphy

  • Visual and Ophthalmic Optics, Jim Schwiegerling

Preface

Crystal growth is the art and science of growing crystals that are pillars of modern technological developments. It acts as a bridge between science and technology. Crystals are used in lasers, semiconducting devices, computers, magnetic and optical devices, optical processing applications, pharmaceuticals, and a host of other devices. Crystal growth requires technical skills in chemistry, physics, and materials science.

This Field Guide covers the basic phenomena and techniques for growing bulk single crystals of high-technology materials from solution, melt, and vapors. Some techniques for growing crystal in the microgravity environment of space are also presented. The idea of electronic miniaturization was developed during the mid-1950s due to the understanding and growth of doped silicon crystals. In principle, atoms are stacked in three dimensions in saturated solutions, melt, and vapors. It requires knowledge of temperature control, motion control, heating-furnace design, raising and lowering mechanisms, and phase diagrams.

We hope that the included examples inspire readers with ideas to grow new materials for new devices. Any crystal growth process is complex; it depends on many parameters that can interact. The complexity makes it difficult to reproduce a process that is known to work and makes the processing of new materials much more difficult than it appears superficially. Crystal growth is sometimes frustrating, but like other crafts, it can provide great satisfaction.

Ashok K. Batra

Mohan D. Aggarwal

June 2018

Acknowledgments

First and foremost, this book would not be possible without the inspiration of my dear father, who advised me to write this demanding scientific resource. I express my gratitude to him and to my late mother for instilling important traits in me, such as perseverance, hard work, and humility. I am forever indebted to my lovely wife, Nutan, who has been very supportive and caring throughout the process. I am eternally grateful to my close-knit family, including my adorable younger brother, Vijay, and my sister, Savita, who have supported me wholeheartedly throughout my career and in authoring this Field Guide. I am grateful to Profs. S. C. Mathur and R. B. Lal for sharing their valuable insights and guidance.

I would like to express my appreciation to the Alabama A&M University administration, and the faculty and staff of the Physics Department for their general support and the friendly atmosphere that they create. Special thanks to graphic designer Conner Roberson for preparation of the figures and to Sheral L. Carter for her support. Additionally, I would like to acknowledge contributions from the many research students whose work is cited. Partial support of the NSF grant-RISE/HRD #1546965 is gratefully acknowledged.

Ashok K. Batra

I appreciate the support for the present work given by a number of federally funded projects on bulk crystal growth of various high-technology materials on Earth and in microgravity from NASA, SMDC, and NSF, including partial support of the NSF project for the Alliance for Physics Excellence DUE 123 8192. The contribution and illuminating discussions with colleagues and graduate students, as well as the keen interest and encouragement of the Alabama A&M University administration, are also acknowledged.

Mohan D. Aggarwal

Glossary of Symbols and Notation

0D

Zero dimensional

1D

One dimensional

2D

Two dimensional

3D

Three dimensional

ADP

Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate

AgBr

Silver bromide

AgCl

Silver chloride

Al2O3

Aluminum oxide

Al2O3:Cr3+

Chromium-doped aluminum oxide

B2O3

Boron oxide

BaTiO3

Barium titanate

BaxSr1−xNb2O6

Barium strontium niobate

BBO

β barium borate

BCC

Body-centered cubic

BCT

Body-centered tetragonal

BGO

Bismuth germanium oxide

BS technique

Bridgman–Stockbarger technique

BSO

Bismuth silicon oxide

C 0

Equilibrium concentration

CaCO3

Calcium carbonate

CaF2

Calcium fluoride

CaWO4

Calcium tungstate

CCD

Charge-coupled device

CLBO

Cesium lithium triborate

CsBr

Cesium bromide

CZ crystal growth

Czochralski crystal growth

FCC

Face-centered cubic

Fe2O3

Iron oxide

FES

Fluid experiment system

GaAs

Gallium arsenide

GaN

Gallium nitride

GaP

Gallium phosphide

GaSb

Gallium antimonide

Ge

Germanium

HgCdTe

Mercury cadmium telluride

InAs

Indium arsenide

InSb

Indium antimonide

KDP

Potassium dihydrogen phosphate

KDP(KH2PO4)

Potassium dihydrogen phosphate

KTP(KTiOPO4)

Potassium titanyl phosphage

LaBr3

Lanthanum bromide

LaF3

Lanthanum fluoride

LAP

L-arginine phosphate

LaTaO3

Lanthanum tantalite

LBO

Lithium triborate

LHFB

L-histidine tetra fluoroborate

Li2SO4H2O

Hydrated lithium sulfate

LiF

Lithium fluoride

LiIO3

Lithium iodate

LN(LiNbO3)

Lithium niobate

LRO

Long-range order

MgF2

Magnesium fluoride

MgO

Magnesium oxide

mNA

Meta-nitroaniline

MNA-MAP

Methyl-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-minopropanoate: 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline

Na2B4O7

Sodium borate

NaF

Sodium fluoride

NaI:Tl

Thallium-doped sodium iodide

NaNO3

Sodium nitrate

Nb

Niobium

Nb2O5

Niobium oxide

PbF2

Lead fluoride

PbI2

Lead iodide

PbO

Lead oxide

PMN-PT Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3

Lead magnesium niobate—lead titanate

Pt

Platinum

RF

Radio frequency

rpm

Revolutions per minute

RT

Room temperature

RTV

Room-temperature vulcanization

Si

Silicon

Si3N4

Silicon nitride

SiO2

Silicon oxide

SnPbTe

Tin lead telluride

SrI2

Strontium iodide

SrTiO3

Strontium titanate

Ta

Tantalum

TGS

Triglycine sulfate

TiO2

Titanium oxide

TSSG

Top-seeded solution growth

UV

Ultraviolet

Vm

Molar volume

Y3AL5O12

Yttrium aluminum garnet

Y3Fe5O12

Yttrium iron garnet

YAG

Yttrium aluminum garnet

ZnO

Zinc oxide

ZnS

Zinc sulfide

ZnSe

Zinc selenide

ZnTe

Zinc telluride

ZrO2

Cubic zirconia (zirconium oxide)

β

Surface tension

Δ

Solubility parameter

ΔC

Super saturation

ΔH

Molar enthalpy

ΔT

Super cooling

ΔU

Molar energy

(NH2CH2COOH)3 H2SO4

Triglycine sulfate

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