Ebook Topic:
Front Matter
Abstract
This front matter contains an introduction, table of contents, and symbol glossary.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Greivenkamp, John E.

Field guide to geometrical optics / John E. Greivenkamp

p. cm. – (SPIE field guides)

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 0-8194-5294-7 (softcover)

1. Geometrical optics. I. Title II. Series.

QC381.G73 2003

535′. 32--dc22

2003067381

Published by

SPIE—The International Society for Optical Engineering

P.O. Box 10

Bellingham, Washington 98227-0010 USA

Phone: +1 360 676 3290

Fax: +1 360 647 1445

Email: spie@spie.org

Web: http://spie.org

The content of this book reflects the work and thought of the author. Every effort has been made to publish reliable and accurate information herein, but the publisher is not responsible for the validity of the information or for any outcomes resulting from reliance thereon.

Printed in the United States of America.

Third printing

Introduction to the Series

Welcome to the SPIE Field Guides! This volume is one of the first in a new series of publications written directly for the practicing engineer or scientist. Many textbooks and professional reference books cover optical principles and techniques in depth. The aim of the SPIE Field Guides is to distill this information, providing readers with a handy desk or briefcase reference that provides basic, essential information about optical principles, techniques, or phenomena, including definitions and descriptions, key equations, illustrations, application examples, design considerations, and additional resources. A significant effort will be made to provide a consistent notation and style between volumes in the series.

Each SPIE Field Guide addresses a major field of optical science and technology. The concept of these Field Guides is a format-intensive presentation based on figures and equations supplemented by concise explanations. In most cases, this modular approach places a single topic on a page, and provides full coverage of that topic on that page. Highlights, insights and rules of thumb are displayed in sidebars to the main text. The appendices at the end of each Field Guide provide additional information such as related material outside the main scope of the volume, key mathematical relationships and alternative methods. While complete in their coverage, the concise presentation may not be appropriate for those new to the field.

The SPIE Field Guides are intended to be living documents. The modular page-based presentation format allows them to be easily updated and expanded. We are interested in your suggestions for new Field Guide topics as well as what material should be added to an individual volume to make these Field Guides more useful to you. Please contact us at fieldguides@SPIE.org.

John E. Greivenkamp, Series Editor

Optical Sciences Center

The University of Arizona

Field Guide to Geometrical Optics

The material in this Field Guide to Geometrical Optics derives from the treatment of geometrical optics that has evolved as part of the academic programs at the Optical Sciences Center at the University of Arizona. The development is both rigorous and complete, and it features a consistent notation and sign convention. This material is included in both our undergraduate and graduate programs. This volume covers Gaussian imagery, paraxial optics, first-order optical system design, system examples, illumination, chromatic effects and an introduction to aberrations. The appendices provide supplemental material on radiometry and photometry, the human eye, and several other topics.

Special acknowledgement must be given to Roland V. Shack and Robert R. Shannon. They first taught me this material “several” years ago, and they have continued to teach me throughout my career as we have become colleagues and friends. I simply cannot thank either of them enough.

I thank Jim Palmer, Jim Schwiegerling, Robert Fischer and Jose Sasian for their help with certain topics in this Guide. I especially thank Greg Williby and Dan Smith for their thorough review of the draft manuscript, even though it probably delayed the completion of their dissertations. Finally, I recognize all of the students who have sat through my lectures. Their desire to learn has fueled my enthusiasm for this material and has caused me to deepen my understanding of it.

This Field Guide is dedicated to my wife, Kay, and my children, Jake and Katie. They keep my life in focus (and mostly aberration free).

John E. Greivenkamp

Optical Sciences Center

The University of Arizona

Table of Contents

Glossary x

Fundamentals of Geometrical Optics 1

Sign Conventions 1

Basic Concepts 2

Optical Path Length 3

Refraction and Reflection 4

Optical Spaces 5

Gaussian Optics 6

Refractive and Reflective Surfaces 7

Newtonian Equations 8

Gaussian Equations 9

Longitudinal Magnification 10

Nodal Points 11

Object-Image Zones 12

Gaussian Reduction 13

Thick and Thin Lenses 14

Vertex Distances 15

Thin Lens Imaging 16

Object-Image Conjugates 17

Afocal Systems 18

Paraxial Optics 19

Paraxial Raytrace 20

YNU Raytrace Worksheet 21

Cassegrain Objective Example 22

Stops and Pupils 24

Marginal and Chief Rays 25

Pupil Locations 26

Field of View 27

Lagrange Invariant 28

Numerical Aperture and F-Number 29

Ray Bundles 30

Vignetting 31

More Vignetting 32

Telecentricity 33

Double Telecentricity 34

Depth of Focus and Depth of Field 35

Hyperfocal Distance and Scheimpflug Condition 36

Optical Systems 37

Parity and Plane Mirrors 37

Systems of Plane Mirrors 38

Prism Systems 39

More Prism Systems 40

Image Rotation and Erection Prisms 41

Plane Parallel Plates 42

Objectives 43

Zoom Lenses 44

Magnifiers 45

Keplerian Telescope 46

Galilean Telescope 47

Field Lenses 48

Eyepieces 49

Relays 50

Microscopes 51

Microscope Terminology 52

Viewfinders 53

Single Lens Reflex and Triangulation 54

Illumination Systems 55

Diffuse Illumination 56

Integrating Spheres and Bars 57

Projection Condenser System 58

Source Mirrors 59

Overhead Projector 60

Schlieren and Dark Field Systems 61

Chromatic Effects 62

Dispersion 62

Optical Glass 63

Material Properties 64

Dispersing Prisms 65

Thin Prisms 66

Thin Prism Dispersion and Achromatization 67

Chromatic Aberration 68

Achromatic Doublet 69

Monochromatic Aberrations 70

Monochromatic Aberrations 70

Rays and Wavefronts 71

Spot Diagrams 72

Wavefront Expansion 73

Tilt and Defocus 74

Spherical Aberration 75

Spherical Aberration and Defocus 76

Coma 77

Astigmatism 78

Field Curvature 79

Distortion 80

Combinations of Aberrations 81

Conics and Aspherics 82

Mirror-Based Telescopes 83

Appendices 84

Radiometry 84

Radiative Transfer 85

Photometry 86

Sources 87

Airy Disk 88

Diffraction and Aberrations 89

Eye 90

Retina and Schematic Eyes 91

Ophthalmic Terminology 92

More Ophthalmic Terminology 93

Film and Detector Formats 94

Photographic Systems 95

Scanners 96

Rainbows and Blue Skies 97

Matrix Methods 98

Common Matrices 99

Trigonometric Identities 100

Equation Summary 101

Bibliography 107

Index 111

Glossary

Unprimed variables and symbols are in object space. Primed variables and symbols are in image space.

Frequently used variables and symbols:

a

Aperture radius

A, A′

Object and image areas

B′

Image plane blur criterion

BFD

Back focal distance

c

Speed of light

C

Curvature

CC

Center of curvature

d, d′

Front and rear principal plane shifts

D

Diopters

D

Diameter

D

Airy disk diameter

DOF

Depth of focus, geometrical

E, EV

Irradiance and illuminance

EFL

Effective focal length

EP

Entrance pupil

ER

Eye relief

f, fE

Focal length or effective focal length

fF, f′R

Front and rear focal lengths

f/#

F-number

f/#W

Working F-number

δf

Longitudinal chromatic aberration

F, F′

Front and rear focal points

FFD

Front focal distance

FFOV

Full field of view

FOB

Fractional object

FOV

Field of view

h, h′

Object and image heights

H

Lagrange invariant

H

Normalized field height

H, HV

Exposure

HFOV

Half field of view

I

Optical invariant

I, IV

Intensity and luminous intensity

L

Object-to-image distance

L, LV

Radiance and luminance

LH

Hyperfocal distance

LNEAR, LFAR

Depth of field limits

LA

Longitudinal aberration

m

Transverse or lateral magnification

m¯

Longitudinal magnification

mV

Visual magnification (microscope)

M, MV

Exitance and luminous exitance

MP

Magnifying power (magnifier or telescope)

MTF

Modulation transfer function

n

Index of refraction

N, N′

Front and rear nodal points

NA

Numerical aperture

OPL

Optical path length

OTL

Optical tube length

P

Partial dispersion ratio

P, P′

Front and rear principal points

PSF

Point spread function

Q

Energy

rP

Pupil radius

R

Radius of curvature

s

Surface sag or a separation

s, s′

Object and image vertex distances

S

Seidel aberration coefficient

SR

Strehl ratio

t

Thickness

T

Temperature

TA

Transverse aberration

TACH

Transverse axial chromatic aberration

TIR

Total internal reflection

Δt

Exposure time

u, u¯

Paraxial angles; marginal and chief rays

U

Real marginal ray angle

V

Abbe number

V, V′

Surface vertices

W

Wavefront error

WIJK

Wavefront aberration coefficient

WD

Working distance

x, y

Object coordinates

x′, y′

Image coordinates

xP, xP

Normalized pupil coordinates

XP

Exit pupil

y, y¯

Paraxial ray heights; marginal and chief rays

z

Optical axis

z, z′

Object and image distances

δz

Image plane shift

δz

Depth of focus, diffraction

Δz, Δz′

Object and image separations

α

Dihedral angle or prism angle

δ

Prism deviation

δMIN

Angle of minimum deviation

δϕ

Longitudinal chromatic aberration

Δ

Prism dispersion

ε

Prism secondary dispersion

εX, εY

Transverse ray errors

εZ

Longitudinal ray error

θ

Angle of incidence, refraction or reflection

θ

Azimuth pupil coordinate

θC

Critical angle

θ1/2

Half field of view angle

κ

Conic constant

λ

Wavelength

ν

Abbe number

ρ

Reflectance

ρ

Normalized pupil radius

τ

Reduced thickness

ϕ

Optical power

Φ, ΦV

Radiant and luminous power

ω, ω¯

Optical angles; marginal and chief rays

Ω

Solid angle

f28_1a.jpg

Lagrange invariant

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