Abstract
This section contains the title page, introduction to the series, preface, table of contents, and glossary of symbols.

Introduction to the Series

Welcome to the SPIE Field Guides—a series of publications written directly for the practicing engineer or scientist. Many textbooks and professional reference books cover optical principles and techniques in depth. The aim of the SPIE Field Guides is to distill this information, providing readers with a handy desk or briefcase reference that provides basic, essential information about optical principles, techniques, or phenomena, including definitions and descriptions, key equations, illustrations, application examples, design considerations, and additional resources. A significant effort will be made to provide a consistent notation and style between volumes in the series.

Each SPIE Field Guide addresses a major field of optical science and technology. The concept of these Field Guides is a format-intensive presentation based on figures and equations supplemented by concise explanations. In most cases, this modular approach places a single topic on a page, and provides full coverage of that topic on that page. Highlights, insights, and rules of thumb are displayed in sidebars to the main text. The appendices at the end of each Field Guide provide additional information such as related material outside the main scope of the volume, key mathematical relationships, and alternative methods. While complete in their coverage, the concise presentation may not be appropriate for those new to the field.

The SPIE Field Guides are intended to be living documents. The modular page-based presentation format allows them to be updated and expanded. We are interested in your suggestions for new Field Guide topics as well as what material should be added to an individual volume to make these Field Guides more useful to you. Please contact us at fieldguides@SPIE.org .

John E. Greivenkamp, Series Editor

College of Optical Sciences

The University of Arizona

The Field Guide Series

Keep information at your fingertips with the SPIE Field Guides:
  • Adaptive Optics, Second Edition, Robert K. Tyson and Benjamin W. Frazier

  • Astronomical Instrumentation, Christoph U. Keller, Ramon Navarro, and Bernhard R. Brandl

  • Atmospheric Optics, Second Edition, Larry C. Andrews

  • Binoculars and Scopes, Paul R. Yoder, Jr. and Daniel Vukobratovich

  • Crystal Growth, Ashok K. Batra and Mohan D. Aggarwal

  • Diffractive Optics, Yakov G. Soskind

  • Digital Micro-Optics, Bernard Kress

  • Displacement Measuring Interferometry, Jonathan D. Ellis

  • Fiber Optic Sensors, William Spillman, Jr. and Eric Udd

  • Geometrical Optics, John E. Greivenkamp

  • Holography, Pierre-Alexandre Blanche

  • Illumination, Angelo Arecchi, Tahar Messadi, and R. John Koshel

  • Image Processing, Khan M. Iftekharuddin and Abdul Awwal

  • Infrared Systems, Detectors, and FPAs, Third Edition, Arnold Daniels

  • Interferometric Optical Testing, Eric P. Goodwin and James C. Wyant

  • Laser Pulse Generation, Rüdiger Paschotta

  • Lasers, Rüdiger Paschotta

  • Lens Design, Julie Bentley and Craig Olson

  • Lidar, Paul McManamon

  • Linear Systems in Optics, J. Scott Tyo and Andrey S. Alenin

  • Microscopy, Tomasz S. Tkaczyk

  • Molded Optics, Alan Symmons and Michael Schaub

  • Nonlinear Optics, Peter E. Powers

  • Optical Fabrication, Ray Williamson

  • Optical Fiber Technology, Rüdiger Paschotta

  • Optical Lithography, Chris A. Mack

  • Optical Thin Films, Ronald R. Willey

  • Optomechanical Design and Analysis, Katie Schwertz and James H. Burge

  • Physical Optics, Daniel G. Smith

  • Polarization, Edward Collett

  • Probability, Random Processes, and Random Data Analysis, Larry C. Andrews and Ronald L. Phillips

  • Radiometry, Barbara G. Grant

  • Special Functions for Engineers, Larry C. Andrews

  • Spectroscopy, David W. Ball

  • Terahertz Sources, Detectors, and Optics, Créidhe M. O’Sullivan and J. Anthony Murphy

  • Visual and Ophthalmic Optics, Jim Schwiegerling

Field Guide to Infrared Optics, Materials, and Radiometry

The amount of new material added to the second edition of the Field Guide to Infrared Systems, Detectors, and FPAs (2010) was quite extensive. As a result, the third edition (2018) of that Field Guide is accompanied by this “companion” publication, Field Guide to Infrared Optics, Materials, and Radiometry.

These Field Guides cover a broad range of technical topics necessary to understand the principles of modern infrared technology. They combine numerous engineering disciplines essential for the development of infrared systems. The mathematical equations and physical concepts in these Field Guides are in sequence. Therefore, although the two publications are available separately, it is highly recommended that readers acquire the two books as a set.

The Field Guide to Infrared Optics, Materials, and Radiometry includes a detailed explanation of monochromatic and chromatic optical aberrations as well as a comprehensive introduction to the optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of infrared materials. It provides important concepts such as depth of focus, depth of field, hyperfocal distance, warm shields, aspheric surfaces, kinoforms, optical scatter, etc. It also includes an overview of the best and most common infrared glasses and mirror substrates. This Field Guide also covers the essentials of radiometry necessary for the quantitative understanding of infrared signatures and flux transfer, spectral atmospheric transmittance, and path radiance.

I would like to acknowledge and express my gratitude to my professor and mentor Dr. Glenn Boreman for his guidance, experience, and friendship. The knowledge that he passed to me during my graduate studies at CREOL ultimately contributed to the creation of these Field Guides. I also would like to thank Mr. Thomas Haberfelde for his efforts in reviewing the drafts of the manuscripts as well as Alexander Daniels and Dara Burrows for their skillful editing assistance.

Above all, I voice a special note of gratitude to my kids Becky and Alex, and my wife Rosa for their love and support.

Lastly, I would particularly like to thank you, the reader, for selecting these books and taking the time to explore the topics related to this motivating and exciting field. I trust that the contents of these Field Guides will prove interesting and useful to engineers and scientists working in one of the various infrared fields.

These Field Guides are dedicated to the memory of my father and brothers.

Arnold Daniels

September 2018

Glossary of Symbols

a lattice

Lattice constant

A

Area

A d

Detector area

A enp

Area of an entrance pupil

A exp

Area of an exit pupil

A footprint

Footprint area

A img

Area of an image

A lens

Lens area

A obj

Area of an object

A opt

Area of an optical component

A s

Source area

AMTIR

Amorphous materials transmitting infrared radiation

b.f.l.

Back focal length

Bi

Biot number

BSDF

Bidirectional scatter distribution function

c

Speed of light in vacuum

C p

Heat capacitance at constant pressure

CoC

Circle of confusion

CVD

Chemical vapor deposition

d diff

Diameter of a diffraction-limited spot

D enp

Diameter of an entrance-pupil

D exp

Diameter of an exit-pupil

D img

Image diameter

D in

Input diameter

D lens

Lens diameter

D obj

Object diameter

D opt

Optics diameter

D out

Output diameter

e

Energy-based unit subscript

E

Young’s modulus

E e,bkg

Background irradiance–energy units

E e,img

Image irradiance–energy units

E p,bkg

Background irradiance–photon units

E p,img

Image irradiance–photon units

E source

Source irradiance

E

Energy of a photon

f

Focal length

f eff

Effective focal length

f.f.l.

Front focal length

F B

Back focal point

F F

Front focal point

F s

Force

FOR

Field of regard

FOV

Full-angle field of view

FOVhalf-angle

Half-angle field of view

F/#

F-number

GASIR

Germanium arsenic selenium infrared

h

Planck’s constant

h¯

Mean coefficient of heat transfer

h img

Image height

h obj

Object height

H

Hardness

HFD

Hyperfocal distance

IDCA

Integrated dewar/detector cooler assembly

k

Conic constant

k

Boltzmann’s constant

k′

Thermal conductivity

K Ic

Fracture toughness

ks

Spring stiffness

L

Radiance

L bkg

Background radiance

L λ

Spectral radiance

LWIR

Longwave infrared

me*

Effective mass of an electron

M

Exitance

M meas

Measured exitance

M obj

Exitance of an object

M λ

Spectral exitance

MTF

Modulation transfer function

MWIR

Midwave infrared

M

Magnification

Mang

Angular magnification

n

Refractive index

n e

Extraordinary refractive index

n o

Ordinary refractive index

NSA

Nanostructure array

p

Object distance

p

Photon-based unit subscript

p m

Momentum of a photon

P f

Load at fracture

PSD

Power spectral density

PSF

Point spread function

q

Image distance

r

Pupil radius

R

Exit-pupil-to-image distance

R

Resistance

SF

Safety factor

SNR

Signal-to-noise ratio

SR

Strehl-intensity ratio

T

Temperature

T b

Brightness temperature

T bkg

Background temperature

T c

Color temperature

T curie

Curie temperature

T d

Detector temperature

T load

Load temperature

T rad

Radiation temperature

T source

Source temperature

Ttarget

Target temperature

TIS

Total integrated scatter

v

Speed of light in a medium

V

Abbe number

W abr

Aberrated wavefront

W PV

Peak-to-valley wavefront error

W ref

Reference wavefront

WFE

Wavefront error

x i, y i

Image coordinates

x o, y o

Object coordinates

x p, y p

Pupil coordinates

α

Coefficient of absorption

α′

Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE)

β

Blur angle caused by diffraction

γ

Surface energy density

δ

Depth of field

δ′

Depth of focus

δf

Shift in focus

δ y

Transverse aberration

δ z

Longitudinal aberration

ΔT

Temperature difference

ΔW

Optical path difference (OPD)

Δλ

Wavelength interval

ɛ

Emissivity

ɛ′

Strain

η

Spatial frequency in the vertical direction

ηkino

Diffraction efficiency of kinoforms

θ

Angle variable

θmax

Maximum angle subtense

λ

Subscript indicating a spectral radiometric quantity

λ

Wavelength

λcutoff

Cutoff wavelength

λcuton

Cuton wavelength

λmax

Maximum wavelength

λmax-cont

Maximum contrast wavelength

λo

Fixed wavelength

λpeak

Peak wavelength

ν

Optical frequency

ν

Poisson ratio

ξ

Spatial frequency in the horizontal direction

ρ

Normalized pupil radius

ρ

Reflectance

ρ′

Material density

ρp

Reflectance: p-polarization

ρs

Reflectance: s-polarization

σ′

Stress

σe

Stefan–Boltzmann constant in energy units

σf

Ultimate tensile stress

σmax

Maximum stress

σp

Stefan–Boltzmann constant in photon units

σrms

Surface roughness

τ

Transmittance

τatm

Atmospheric transmittance

τexternal

External transmittance

τint

Integration time

τinternal

Internal transmittance

τopt

Optical transmittance

τp

Transmittance: p-polarization

τs

Transmittance: s-polarization

ϕ

Angular aberration

φ

Flux

φabs

Absorbed flux

φbkg

Background flux

φd

Detector flux

φimg

Flux incident on an image

φinc

Incident flux

φobj

Flux radiated by an object

φsig

Signal flux

φtrans

Transmitted flux

φλ

Spectral flux

χ

Empirical constant

ω

RMS wavefront error

Ω

Solid angle

Ωd

Detector solid angle

Ωbkg

Background solid angle

Ωenp

Entrance pupil solid angle

Ωexp

Exit pupil solid angle

Ωimg

Image solid angle

Ωlens

Lens solid angle

Ωobj

Object solid angle

Ωs

Source solid angle

TOPIC
14 PAGES

SHARE
Back to Top