Abstract
This section contains the title page, introduction to the series, preface, table of contents, and glossary of symbols.

Introduction to the Series

Welcome to the SPIE Field Guides—a series of publications written directly for the practicing engineer or scientist. Many textbooks and professional reference books cover optical principles and techniques in depth. The aim of the SPIE Field Guides is to distill this information, providing readers with a handy desk or briefcase reference that provides basic, essential information about optical principles, techniques, or phenomena, including definitions and descriptions, key equations, illustrations, application examples, design considerations, and additional resources. A significant effort will be made to provide a consistent notation and style between volumes in the series.

Each SPIE Field Guide addresses a major field of optical science and technology. The concept of these Field Guides is a format-intensive presentation based on figures and equations supplemented by concise explanations. In most cases, this modular approach places a single topic on a page, and provides full coverage of that topic on that page. Highlights, insights, and rules of thumb are displayed in sidebars to the main text. The appendices at the end of each Field Guide provide additional information such as related material outside the main scope of the volume, key mathematical relationships, and alternative methods. While complete in their coverage, the concise presentation may not be appropriate for those new to the field.

The SPIE Field Guides are intended to be living documents. The modular page-based presentation format allows them to be updated and expanded. We are interested in your suggestions for new Field Guide topics as well as what material should be added to an individual volume to make these Field Guides more useful to you. Please contact us at fieldguides@SPIE.org.

John E. Greivenkamp, Series Editor

College of Optical Sciences

The University of Arizona

The Field Guide Series

Keep information at your fingertips with the SPIE Field Guides:
  • Adaptive Optics, Second Edition, Robert K. Tyson and Benjamin W. Frazier

  • Astronomical Instrumentation, Christoph U. Keller, Ramon Navarro, and Bernhard R. Brandl

  • Atmospheric Optics, Second Edition, Larry C. Andrews

  • Binoculars and Scopes, Paul R. Yoder, Jr. and Daniel Vukobratovich

  • Crystal Growth, Ashok K. Batra and Mohan D. Aggarwal

  • Diffractive Optics, Yakov G. Soskind

  • Digital Micro-Optics, Bernard Kress

  • Displacement Measuring Interferometry, Jonathan D. Ellis

  • Fiber Optic Sensors, William Spillman, Jr. and Eric Udd

  • Geometrical Optics, John E. Greivenkamp

  • Holography, Pierre-Alexandre Blanche

  • Illumination, Angelo Arecchi, Tahar Messadi, and R. John Koshel

  • Image Processing, Khan M. Iftekharuddin and Abdul Awwal

  • Infrared Optics, Materials, and Radiometry, Arnold Daniels

  • Interferometric Optical Testing, Eric P. Goodwin and James C. Wyant

  • Laser Pulse Generation, Rüdiger Paschotta

  • Lasers, Rüdiger Paschotta

  • Lens Design, Julie Bentley and Craig Olson

  • Lidar, Paul McManamon

  • Linear Systems in Optics, J. Scott Tyo and Andrey S. Alenin

  • Microscopy, Tomasz S. Tkaczyk

  • Molded Optics, Alan Symmons and Michael Schaub

  • Nonlinear Optics, Peter E. Powers

  • Optical Fabrication, Ray Williamson

  • Optical Fiber Technology, Rüdiger Paschotta

  • Optical Lithography, Chris A. Mack

  • Optical Thin Films, Ronald R. Willey

  • Optomechanical Design and Analysis, Katie Schwertz and James H. Burge

  • Physical Optics, Daniel G. Smith

  • Polarization, Edward Collett

  • Probability, Random Processes, and Random Data Analysis, Larry. C. Andrews and Ronald L. Phillips

  • Radiometry, Barbara G. Grant

  • Special Functions for Engineers, Larry C. Andrews

  • Spectroscopy, David W. Ball

  • Terahertz Sources, Detectors, and Optics, Créidhe M. O’Sullivan and J. Anthony Murphy

  • Visual and Ophthalmic Optics, Jim Schwiegerling

Field Guide to Infrared Systems, Detectors, and FPAs, Third Edition

The amount of new material that was added to the second edition of the Field Guide to Infrared Systems, Detectors, and FPAs (2010) was rather extensive. As a result, this third edition is accompanied by a “companion” publication, the Field Guide to Infrared Optics, Materials, and Radiometry.

These Field Guides cover a broad range of technical topics necessary to understand the principles of modern infrared technology. They combine numerous engineering disciplines that are essential for the development of infrared systems. The mathematical equations and physical concepts in these Field Guides are in sequence. Therefore, although these publications are sold separately, it is highly recommended that readers acquire the two books as a set.

This third edition of the Field Guide to Infrared Systems, Detectors, and FPAs, is devoted to fundamental background issues for optical detection processes. It compares the characteristics of cooled and uncooled detectors with an emphasis on spectral and blackbody responsivity, and detectivity, as well as the noise mechanisms related to optical detection. This edition introduces the concepts of barrier infrared detector technologies and encompasses the capabilities and challenges of third-generation infrared focal plane arrays as well as the advantages of using dual-band technology.

With this acquired background, the last chapter considers the systems design aspects of infrared imagers. Figures of merit such as MTF, NETD, and MRTD of starring arrays are examined for the performance metrics of thermal sensitivity and spatial resolution of thermal imaging systems. The parameter λ(F/#)/d, motion MTF, and atmospheric MTF are included in this third edition. It also includes an overview of the targeting task performance (TTP) metric.

I would like to acknowledge and express my gratitude to my professor and mentor Dr. Glenn Boreman for his guidance, experience, and friendship. The knowledge that he passed on to me during my graduate studies at CREOL ultimately contributed to the creation of this book.

I extend my sincere appreciation to Dr. Mel Friedman, NVESD, who took on the onerous task of improving and clarifying the TTP metric concepts and its contents. I would also like to thank Mr. Thomas Haberfelde for his efforts in reviewing the drafts of the manuscripts as well as Alexander Daniels and Dara Burrows for their skillful editing assistance.

Above all, I voice a special note of gratitude to my kids Becky and Alex, and my wife Rosa for their love and support.

Lastly, I would particularly like to thank you, the reader, for selecting these books and taking the time to explore the topics related to this motivating and exciting field. I trust that the contents of these Field Guides will prove interesting and useful to engineers and scientists working in one of the various infrared fields.

These Field Guides are dedicated to the memory of my father and brothers.

Arnold Daniels

September 2018

Glossary of Symbols

a

Size of airborne particles

A

Area

A d

Detector area

A obj

Area of an object

A opt

Area of an optical component

A s

Area of a source

B

3-db bandwidth

B-B

Bound-to-bound

B-C

Bound-to-continuum

B-QB

Bound-to-quasi-bound

BLIP

Background-limited infrared photodetector

c

Speed of light in vacuum

C d

Detector capacitance

C th

Thermal capacitance

Cn2

Refractive index structure constant

CQWIP

Corrugated quantum-well infrared photodetector

CTE

Coefficient of thermal expansion

CTF

Contrast transfer function

CTFeye

Contrast threshold function of the eye

CTFn

Contrast threshold function in the presence of external noise

CTFsys

Contrast threshold function of a system

d

Detector size

d diff

Diameter of a diffraction-limited spot

d h

Detector size in the horizontal direction

d v

Detector size in the vertical direction

D

Electrical displacement

D*

Normalized detectivity of a detector

DBF*

Background fluctuation D-star

DBLIP*

D-star under BLIP conditions

DTF*

Temperature fluctuation D-star

D**

Angle-normalized detectivity

D in

Input diameter

D lens

Lens diameter

D opt

Optics diameter

D out

Output diameter

e

Energy-based unit subscript

E bkg

Background irradiance

E source

Source irradiance

ESF

Edge spread function

E

Energy of a photon

Egap

Energy gap of a semiconductor material

f

Focal length

f 0

Center frequency of an electrical filter

f eff

Effective focal length

f (x,y)

Object function

F

Finesse

F(ξ,η)

Object spectrum

FOR

Field of regard

FOV

Full-angle field of view

FPA

Focal plane array

F/#

F-number

g(x,y)

Image function

G

Gain of a photoconductive detector

G(ξ,η)

Image spectrum

h

Planck’s constant

h img

Image height

h obj

Object height

h(x,y)

Impulse response

H

Heat capacity

H(ξ,η)

Transfer function

HIFOV

Horizontal instantaneous field of view

HFOV

Horizontal field of view

i

Electrical current

i

Mean current

i avg

Average electrical current

i bkg

Background rms current

i dark

Dark current

i j

rms Johnson noise current

i 1/ f

rms 1/f-noise current

i nG / R

Generation–recombination (G/R) noise rms current

i noise

Noise current

i o

Dark current

i oc

Open circuit current

i pa

Preamplifier noise rms current

i ph

Photogenerated current

i rms

rms current

i sc

Short circuit current

i shot

Shot noise rms current

i sig

Signal current

IC

Integrated circuit

IRFPA

Infrared focal plane array

j

imaginary number

J

Current density

k

Boltzmann’s constant

K f )

Spatial-frequency-dependant MRTD proportionality factor

l w

Width of a well

L

Atmospheric path length

L

Radiance

L bkg

Background radiance

L e

Radiance in energy units

L p

Radiance in photon units

L v

Visual luminance

L λ

Spectral radiance

LPE

Liquid phase epitaxy

LSF

Line spread function

LWIR

Longwave infrared

me*

Effective mass of an electron

M

Exitance

M e

Exitance in energy units

M meas

Measured exitance

M obj

Exitance of an object

M p

Exitance in photon units

M λ

Spectral exitance

MRTD

Minimum resolvable temperature difference

MTF

Modulation transfer function

MTFaer

Aerosol MTF

MTFd

Detector MTF

MTFlinear

Linear-motion MTF

MTFpost

Post-sampled MTF (display, digital processing, and the eye–brain filter)

MTFpre

Pre-sampled MTF (optics detector, and line-of-sight jitter),

MTFrandom

Random-motion MTF

MTFsin

Sinusoidal-motion MTF

MTFsys

System’s MTF

MTFtur

Turbulence MTF

MWIR

Midwave infrared

M

Magnification

Mang

Angular magnification

n

Refractive index

n cycles

Number of cycles needed to discriminate a target

n d

Number of detectors

n e

Number of photogenerated electrons

n lines

Number of lines

NEI

Noise-equivalent irradiance

NEP

Noise-equivalent power

NETD

Noise-equivalent temperature difference

NETDBF

Background fluctuation NETD

NETDBLIP

NETD under BLIP conditions

NETDTF

Temperature fluctuation NETD

NEΔf

Noise-equivalent bandwidth

OTF

Optical transfer function

p

Photon-based unit subscript

p

Pyroelectric coefficient

p

Momentum of an electron

P

Magnitude of internal polarization

P avg

Average power

P chance

Probability of chance

P measured

Field-measured probability

P observer

Observer’s probability

PSD

Power spectral density

PSF

Point spread function

PV

Photovoltaic (or photodiode)

r o

Fried coherence length

R

Resistance

R d

Detector resistance

R eq

Equivalent resistance

R in

Input resistance

R L

Load resistance

R out

Output resistance

R th

Thermal resistance

RIIC

Read-in integrated circuit

ROIC

Read-out integrated circuit

RSS

Root sum square

R

Responsivity

R i

Current responsivity

R υ

Voltage responsivity

R (T)

Blackbody responsivity

R (λ)

Spectral responsivity

SCNtmp

Scene contrast temperature

SL

Superlattice

SNR

Signal-to-noise ratio

SR

Strehl-intensity ratio

SRRout

Out-of-band spurious response ratio

t

Time

T

Temperature

T bkg

Background temperature

T c

Curie temperature

T d

Detector temperature

T load

Load temperature

T source

Source temperature

T target

Target temperature

TRC

Thermal resistance coefficient

VFOV

Vertical field of view

VIFOV

Vertical instantaneous field of view

x

Alloy composition or molar fraction ratio

α

Coefficient of absorption

α

Thermal resistance coefficient

Δf

Electronic frequency bandwidth

Δt

Time interval

ΔT

Temperature difference

Δλ

Wavelength interval

ε

Emissivity

η

Spatial frequency in the vertical direction

η

Quantum efficiency

ηscan

Scan efficiency

θ

Angle variable

θmax

Maximum angle subtense

Θ

Seebeck coefficient

λ

Subscript indicating a spectral radiometric quantity

λ

Wavelength

λcutoff

Cutoff wavelength

λcuton

Cuton wavelength

λmax

Maximum wavelength

λmax-cont

Maximum-contrast wavelength

λo

Fixed wavelength

λpeak

Peak wavelength

Λ

de Broglie wavelength

μ

Vertical sample frequency

ν

Optical frequency

ξ

Spatial frequency in the horizontal direction

ξcutoff

Spatial cutoff frequency

ξcuton

Spatial cuton frequency

ξJ

Johnson spatial frequency

ρ

Electric charge

ρ

Reflectance

σ

Standard deviation

σ

Atmospheric extinction coefficient

σ2

Variance

σa

Random amplitude of the jitter

σe

Stefan–Boltzmann constant in energy units

σeye

rms visual noise expressed at a display

σn

rms noise filtered by a display

σp

Stefan–Boltzmann constant in photon units

τ

Transmittance

τatm

Atmospheric transmittance

τdwell

Dwell time

τexternal

External transmittance

τframe

Frame time

τint

Integration time

τinternal

Internal transmittance

τline

Line time

τopt

Optical transmittance

τpeak

Peak transmittance

τRC

Electrical time constant

τth

Thermal time constant

υ

Horizontal sample frequency

v

Mean voltage

v det

Detector voltage

v in

Input voltage

v j

Johnson noise rms voltage

v n

rms noise voltage

v oc

Open-circuit voltage

v out

Output voltage

v sc

Short-circuit voltage

v s

Shot-noise rms voltage

v scan

Scan velocity

v sig

Signal voltage

φ

Flux

φabs

Absorbed flux

φbkg

Background flux

φd

Detector flux

φe

Radiant flux in watts

φimg

Flux incident on an image

φinc

Incident flux

φobj

Flux radiated by an object

φp

Photon flux

φsig

Signal flux

φtrans

Transmitted flux

φλ

Spectral flux

ψ

Eigenfunction

ω

Angular frequency

Ω

Solid angle

Ωbkg

Background solid angle

Ωd

Detector solid angle

Ωopt

Optical solid angle

Ωs

Source solid angle

TOPIC
16 PAGES

SHARE
Back to Top