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Front Matter
Abstract
This section contains an introduction to the Field Guide series, list of related Field Guides, table of contents, preface, and glossary.

Introduction to the Series

Welcome to the SPIE Field Guides—a series of publications written directly for the practicing engineer or scientist. Many textbooks and professional reference books cover optical principles and techniques in depth. The aim of the SPIE Field Guides is to distill this information, providing readers with a handy desk or briefcase reference that provides basic, essential information about optical principles, techniques, or phenomena, including definitions and descriptions, key equations, illustrations, application examples, design considerations, and additional resources. A significant effort will be made to provide a consistent notation and style between volumes in the series.

Each SPIE Field Guide addresses a major field of optical science and technology. The concept of these Field Guides is a format-intensive presentation based on figures and equations supplemented by concise explanations. In most cases, this modular approach places a single topic on a page, and provides full coverage of that topic on that page. Highlights, insights, and rules of thumb are displayed in sidebars to the main text. The appendices at the end of each Field Guide provide additional information such as related material outside the main scope of the volume, key mathematical relationships, and alternative methods. While complete in their coverage, the concise presentation may not be appropriate for those new to the field.

The SPIE Field Guides are intended to be living documents. The modular page-based presentation format allows them to be updated and expanded. We are interested in your suggestions for new Field Guide topics as well as what material should be added to an individual volume to make these Field Guides more useful to you. Please contact us at fieldguides@SPIE.org.

John E. Greivenkamp, Series Editor

College of Optical Sciences

The University of Arizona

Related Field Guides

Keep information at your fingertips with these other SPIE Field Guides:
  • Crystal Growth, Ashok K. Batra and Mohan D. Aggarwal (Vol. FG38)

  • Laser Pulse Generation, Rüdiger Paschotta (Vol. FG14)

  • Lasers, Rüdiger Paschotta (FG12)

  • Nonlinear Optics, Peter E. Powers (Vol. FG29)

  • Probability, Random Processes, and Random Data Analysis, Larry C. Andrews and Ronald L. Phillips (Vol. FG22)

  • Quantum Mechanics, Brian P. Anderson (Vol. FG44)

  • Radiometry, Barbara G. Grant (Vol. FG23)

  • Solid State Physics, Marek Wartak and Ching-Yao Fong (Vol. FG43)

  • Spectroscopy, David W. Ball (Vol. FG08)

Other related SPIE Press books:
  • How to Set Up a Laser Lab, Ken L. Barat (Vol. SL02)

  • Laser Beam Quality Metrics, T. Sean Ross (Vol. TT96)

  • Laser Plasma Physics: Forces and the Nonlinearity Principle, Heinrich Hora (Vol. PM250)

  • Laser Safety in the Lab, Ken L. Barat (Vol. PM212)

  • Laser Systems Engineering, Keith J. Kasunic (Vol. PM271)

  • Solid State Lasers: Tunable Sources and Passive Q-Switching Elements, Yehoshua Y. Kalisky (Vol. PM243)

  • The Physics and Engineering of Solid State Lasers, Yehoshua Y. Kalisky (Vol. TT71)

  • Powering Laser Diode Systems, Grigoriy A. Trestman (Vol. TT112)

Table of Contents

Preface

Cooling or refrigeration is based on heat removal and dates back thousands of years to when people tried to preserve their food using ice and snow. The laser—a groundbreaking scientific achievement of the 20th century— has revolutionized the cooling process. The advent of lasers brought laser cooling, also known as optical refrigeration, into existence. Today, laser cooling and its applications represent one of the major subfields of atomic, molecular, and solid state physics.

This Field Guide provides an overview of the basic principles of laser cooling of atoms, ions, nanoparticles, and solids, including Doppler cooling, polarization gradient cooling, different sub-recoil schemes of laser cooling, forced evaporation, laser cooling with anti-Stokes fluorescence, hybrid laser cooling, and Raman and Brillouin cooling. It also covers radiation-balanced lasers and Raman lasers with heat mitigation, and considers the basic principles of optical dipole traps, magnetic traps, and magneto-optical traps. This Field Guide will serve both to introduce students, scientists, and engineers to this exciting field, and to provide a quick reference guide for the essential math and science.

I would like to thank SPIE Press Manager Timothy Lamkins and Series Editor John Greivenkamp for the opportunity to write a Field Guide for one of the most interesting areas of photonics, as well as SPIE Press Sr. Editor Dara Burrows for her help.

This book is dedicated to my mom, Albina.

Galina Nemova

September 2019

Glossary

Fundamental constants

μ B  = 9.27400899 × 10−24 (J·T−1)Bohr magneton
kB  = 1.3806503 × 10−23 (J·K−1)Boltzmann constant
ɛ0 = 8.854187817 × 10−12 (F·m−1)vacuum permittivity or electric constant
me  = 9.10938188 × 10−31 (kg)electron mass
gs  = 2.0023193043737electron spin g-factor
e = 1.6021766208 × 10−19(C)elementary charge
α = 7.297352533 × 10−3 fine structure constant
μ0 = 4π × 10−7 (H·m−1)permeability of vacuum
h = 6.62606876 × 10−34 (J·s)Planck’s constant
ħ = h/2π = 1.054571596×10−34 (J·s)reduced Planck’s constant
c = 299792458 (m·s−1)speed of light in vacuum
σ = 5.67 × 10−8 (Wm−2K−4)Stefan–Boltzmann constant

Units of measure

C

coulomb

F

farad

H

henry

J

joule

K

kelvin

kg

kilogram

m

meter

s

second

T

tesla

Frequently used symbols

Γ

Landau–Zener parameter

Δ

detuning

η

efficiency

κ

thermal conductivity

λ

wavelength

λ deB

de Broglie wavelength

μ

magnetic dipole moment (also known as a magnetic moment or magnetic dipole)

ν

frequency

Glossary of Symbols and Acronyms

ρ

density operator

σ a

absorption cross section

σ e

emission cross section

ψ

wave function

ω

angular frequency

B

magnetic field

E

electric field

EF

Fermi energy

gF

Landé g-factor

gl

electron orbital g-factor

gs

electron spin g-factor

k

wave vector

kr

restoring-force constant

t

time

T

temperature

v

velocity

vs

speed of sound

Quantum mechanical symbols

d

atomic dipole moment

F

total angular momentum quantum number (used by spectroscopists for atoms with an odd isotope number)

F

total angular momentum (for atoms with an odd isotope number)

|F|

magnitude of the total angular momentum F

I

nuclear spin angular momentum

j

total angular momentum quantum number (for a single particle)

J

total angular momentum quantum number (used by spectroscopists for atoms with an even isotope number)

J

total angular momentum (for atoms with an even isotope number)

|J|

magnitude of the total angular momentum J

l

orbital angular momentum quantum number or orbital quantum number (for a single particle)

L

orbital angular momentum quantum number (for a system of several particles)

L

orbital angular momentum (for a system of several particles)

|L|

magnitude of the orbital angular momentum L

ml

magnetic quantum number

n

principal quantum number (for a single particle)

s

spin quantum number (for a single particle)

S

spin quantum number (for a system of several particles)

S

spin angular momentum (for a system of several particles)

|S|

magnitude of the spin angular momentum S

Acronyms and Abbreviations

AC

alternating current

ASF

anti-Stokes fluorescence

BEC

Bose–Einstein condensate

BYF

BaY2F8

CARS

coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering

CG

Clebsch–Gordan (coefficient)

CNBZn

CdF2-CdCl2-NaF-BaF2-BaCl2-ZnF2

DC

direct current

ED

electrical dipole

EIT

electromagnetically induced transparency

EM

electromagnetic

ESA

excited-state absorption

EQ

electric quadrupole

f-factor

oscillator strength

FMHM

full width at half maximum

GEF

geometrical efficiency factor

IPTS

International Practical Temperature Scale

KPC

KPb2Cl5

LD

Lamb–Dicke (regime)

LO

longitudinal optical

MAT

minimum achievable temperature

MD

magnetic dipole

MOT

magneto-optical trap

ODT

optical dipole trap

PSD

phase-space density

QM

quantum model

RE

rare earth

RF

radiofrequency

rms

root-mean-square

RWA

rotating-wave approximation

SCM

semi-classical model

SHG

second harmonic generation

SLT

second law of thermodynamics

SNR

signal-to-noise ratio

SRAP

stimulated Raman adiabatic passage

SRE

selective resonant enhancement

SSRS

stimulated Stokes Raman scattering

STIRAP

stimulated Raman adiabatic passage

TA

transverse acoustic

TIR

total internal reflection

TO

transverse optical

TOF

time-of-flight

TOP

time-orbiting potential

VECSEL

vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser

VSCPT

velocity-selective coherent population trapping

VUV

vacuum ultraviolet

YAG

Y3Al5O12 (yttrium aluminium garnet)

YLF

YLiF4 (yttrium lithium fluoride)

ZBLAN

ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF

ZBLANP

ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF-PbF3 (heavy-metal fluoride glass)

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