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Chapter 3:
High-k, Metal-Gate FinFET CMOS Manufacturing Process
In the so-called “good old days,” the IC technology-node scaling of each generation always brought both higher device density and better device performance. When CMOS IC developed from the 90-nm to 65-nm node, the scaling did not improve the device performance: it only increased the device density. The main reason for this change is the thickness of the gate oxide can no longer be scaled down due to the leakage caused by the tunneling effect.
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