The scaling of integrated circuit (IC) chips becomes more and more
challenging as IC technology pushes the feature size deep into the nanometer (nm) technology nodes. To extend the scaling, engineers and scientists tried to not only shrink the feature size in the x and y directions but also push IC devices into the third dimension. It took 14 years from the first publication of fin-shaped field effect transistors (FinFETs) to high-volume manufacturing (HVM) of 22-nm FinFET IC chips in 2012. In 2014, the first 3D-NANDbased solid state drive (SSD) was introduced to the market, only seven years after the first publication.
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