Flash memory chips are nonvolatile memory (NVM) chips, which can keep memory without power supply. In comparison, DRAM is volatile memory and needs a power supply. Flash memory chips, especially NAND flash memory chips, are commonly used in universal serial bus (USB) drives, secure digital (SD) cards, and SSDs. These NVM devices are widely used in electronics devices for data storage, especially in mobile electronics such as digital cameras, smartphones, tablets, high-end laptops, etc. Compared with a hard-drive disk (HDD), a SSD has a shorter data-access time, consumes less power, and is more reliable because it does not have any moving parts.
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