In this chapter we consider applications of detector arrays in instrumentation and the impact on calibration requirements. This cannot be an exhaustive review, because the uses of CCDs and photodiode arrays is extremely diverse. However, there are particular classes of applications that have features in common and for which a generic set of calibration requirements can be derived.
The information that comes from an array-based instrument relates to the
1. signal in each pixel - calibration involves an assessment of how faithfully the signal in a pixel (or group of pixels) matches the irradiance falling on the array.
2. sharpness of an image (i.e., the spatial resolution)—calibration involves an assessment of how crosstalk between pixels and image artifacts affect the appearance of images.
3. geometric properties of the image - calibration involves an assessment of distortions in the image caused by deviations from an ideal, uniformly spaced grid of pixels.
4. time at which signals are detected.
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