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Chapter 25:
Optimal Approximation of Nonphysical Maps via Maximum Likelihood Estimation
Any quantum dynamics, i.e., the process that is described by a completely positive (CP) map of a quantum-mechanical system, can be probed in two different ways. Either we use a single entangled state of a bipartite system, or we use a collection of linearly independent single-particle test states (forming a basis of the vector space of all Hermitian operators). Given the fragility of entangled states, in this chapter we will focus our attention on the process reconstruction using only single-particle states.
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