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CCD refers to a semiconductor architecture in which charge is transferred through storage areas. The CCD architecture has three basic functions: a) charge collection, b) charge transfer, and c) conversion of charge into a measurable voltage. A CCD can be attached to a variety of detectors. The basic building block of the CCD is the metal-insulator semiconductor (MIS) capacitor. It is also called a gate. The most important MIS is the metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS). Since silicon oxide is an insulator, it is a natural choice.
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