The problem of image reconstruction from a finite number of projections is important in computed tomography (CT), which is used in diagnostic medicine and electron microscopy. The technology of CT scanners is advancing, and new scanner generations provide high-quality pictures, e.g., third-generation scanners wherein the detector array covers the entire FOV, and fan-beam geometry is used instead of parallel-beam geometry. Computed tomography, which is also called computerized axial tomography (CAT), is a diagnostic procedure that uses special x-ray equipment to obtain cross-sectional pictures of the human body.
CT images are called tomograms; they show structures inside the body, including internal organs (such as the kidneys, liver, or spleen), blood vessels, bones, tumors, and other tissues. Tomograms are used to detect or confirm the presence of a tumor (including brain tumors); to provide information about the size and location of the tumor, and whether it has spread; to guide a biopsy (the removal of cells or tissues for examination under a microscope); and to help plan radiation therapy or surgery.
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