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Optical modules are the interface between electronics components and optical fiber. These optical modules building blocks convert the electrical signal into modulated light in the transmit section and the modulated light into an electrical signal, analog or digital, in the receiving side. An introduction to these modules was provided in Chapter 2, explains block diagrams of different receivers and transceivers. This chapter provides review and design approaches to these building blocks. An introduction to the optical design of complex modules such as duplexer's optical dual port (ODP) and triplexer's optical triple port (OTP) are made. Lens types and optical retracing analysis is explained and investigated by showing error tracking and isolation optimization. Planar lightwave circuits (PLC) and free-space modules are also reviewed.
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