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This chapter discusses the results of investigations of DPP sources for EUVL based on the pinch effect in Xe and Sn vapor. In the SRC RF TRINITI (formerly a branch of the Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy) in the Moscow region of Russia, these investigations have been carried out since 1999. Up to that time the institute had already had experience in the development of high-power single-pulse radiation sources based on the pinch effect and capable of producing EUV power of ≈5 × 1012 W, and also in the study of pulse power systems used for high-repetition-rate (≈6 kHz) excimer lasers. The part of this work devoted to the creation of EUV sources was supported by XTREME technologies GmbH.
The analysis of the discharge configurations that permit the plasma to be heated up to the temperatures (about 30 eV) required to emit EUV radiation around 13.5 nm has resulted in our choice of such known discharge configurations as the classical Z pinch and the dynamic (or spouting) pinch. These configurations permitted removing a high-temperature plasma area from the electrode and dielectric surfaces and thereby reducing plasma-surface interactions. However, in such configurations a small size (∼1 mm) of plasma pinch radiating in the EUV range is needed. Started from large-size plasma pinches of 20-mm length and 1-mm diameter, we then matched the pinch size and the emission angle to the requirements of a high-volume manufacturing (HVM) lithography tool.
In this chapter the characteristics of DPP sources with different electrode configurations using Xe or Sn are described. The concepts of the rotating multidis-charge unit (RMDU) source using Xe or Sn and the rotating-disk electrode (RDE) source using Sn, which allow significant reduction of the heat load on electrodes, are discussed.
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