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Ionic polymer metallic composite (IPMC, which is also known as ICPF) [Oguro et al., 1992; Shahinpoor et al., 1999a] is one of the electroactive polymers that have shown potential for practical applications. This material was described in detail in Chapter 6, and the focus of the present chapter is on the modeling aspects of electroactivation, providing a foundation for the design of actuation mechanisms. IPMC is an electroless plated electroactive polymer (EAP) material that bends when subjected to a voltage across its thickness.
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