Turbulence has a large effect on electromagnetic wave propagation that can be described by stochastic differential equations. In this chapter these equations are solved with the Rytov approximation, and the main result is given in eq. 2.110, which is the starting point for all turbulence problems considered in this book. This equation is used to find phase and log-amplitude variances. These expressions are modified to obtain expressions for the power spectral density, given in eq. 2.134, beam profile given in eq. 2.161, and Strehl ratio, which is the ratio of on-axis intensity to that of a diffraction-limited wave, in eq. 2.163.
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