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Chapter 4:
Deep-UV Resist Technology: The Evolution of Materials and Processes for 250-nm Lithography and Beyond
Deep-UV lithography using 248- and 193-nm light will likely be the microlithography technology of choice for the manufacture of advanced memory and logic semiconductor devices for the next decade. Photoresists capable of exploiting these deep-UV wavelengths operate on an entirely different imaging mechanism than traditional positive photoresists. As a result, the preparation, formulation, process peculiarities, reflection suppression requirements, etching properties, etc., are substantially different from (traditional) novolac-based mid-UV resists. The payoff (and it is huge) will be the ability to manufacture devices using optical lithography for device generations perhaps as small as 0.14 μm. This chapter introduces the basic chemistry behind the DUV resists of today and discusses issues involved in the implementation of these new resist materials into manufacturing. Additionally, we describe the new work in the field of 193-nm photoresists, which many hope will be ready for manufacturing devices before the turn of the century. The issues concerning materials, process, reflectivity control, manufacturing facilities, quality control, photoresist manufacturing, and photoresist cost are discussed.
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