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In 1975 Moore published his now famous curve depicting the shrinkage of device critical dimensions over time. A version of this curve is shown as Fig. 8.1. Over the past 20 years, this curve has provided a remarkably good means of projecting future processing requirements. As extrapolation of the curve indicates, in the first decade of the next century, the size of minimum features will be at or less than 100 nm. No matter what the governing principle of device operation is, “quantum effects” (i.e., tunneling and particle-wave interference effects) must be accounted for in predicting device performance.
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