The dynamic field of lithography demands an authoritative handbook for process development and production, and to aid in the training of scientists and engineers. It contains process details, recipes, tables, charts, etc., and is useful as a reference book or as a textbook.
Microlithography and microfabrication are rapidly finding application in many areas, from sensors and actuators to biomedical devices, in addition to their uses in microelectronics device manufacturing. Lithography is the key technology that has driven the dynamic growth of the IC industry over the past two decades. To date, Optical lithography continues to be the mainstream technology for the IC industry, and is being used in production by leading-edge high-volume manufacturers to support 0.25-mm minimum feature size. Although the exposure system using 193-nm optical lithography is expected to extend to 0.13 mm, the industry remains undecided as to the choice of an exposure system beyond 0.13 mm. The options include extreme ultraviolet (EUV or projection x-ray), e-beam projection, massive parallel direct write, and IX proximity x-ray. The field of lithography will continue to be very dynamic, and demands an authoritative handbook for process development and production to aid in the training of scientists and engineers.
Microlithography and micromachining are also driving microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, which is rapidly developing. Within the next decade the cost of micromachined devices will drop to the point where there will be an explosive demand for these devices for use in such industries as automotive, chemical, aircraft, and disposable medical product. MEMS will also find applications for in-situ process monitoring, environmental health and safety monitoring, and numerous other sensor and actuator systems. Use of lithography for fabrication of many microelectromechanical devices frequently requires processing procedures that range from the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio structures down to ultrafine structures.
Although there are a number of books on lithography, a need exists to compile all the diverse information into an easily accessible handbook-type format. SPIE Press is publishing the handbook of Microlithography, Micromachining, and Microfabrication in two volumes. Volume 1 address microlithography, and Volume 2 covers micromachining and microfabrication. Volume 1 focuses on the application of microlithography techniques in microelectronics manufacturing. We hope it will be a useful tutorial introduction to the key microlithography technologies for researchers and engineers who are not necessarily experts in the field, as well as a good sourcebook for those who are.