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During the past few years, active matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs) or primarily thin-film-transistor-addressed liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCDs) have made significant progress in device performance and manufacturing technology. TFT-LCDs are well established in the portable PC application with world-wide capacity shortly to exceed two million units per month. The diagonal size of the displays has been enlarged steadily year by year up to 21 inches.1 The resolutions of some displays have been increased to over 1000 lines per inch.2 The manufacturing of these devices has matured with yields up to 80% reported. In this chapter, the development history, operation theory, fabrication processes, optical performance, and applications of these devices are discussed.
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