This handbook contains process details, recipes, tables, charts, etc., and is useful as a reference book or as a textbook. Eleven chapters cover key aspects of micromachining and microfabrication, including numerous device applications.
Microlithography and microfabrication are rapidly finding application in many areas, from sensors and actuators to biomedical devices, in addition to their uses in microelectronics device manufacturing. Lithography is the key technology that has driven the dynamic growth of the IC industry over the past two decades. To date, Optical lithography continues to be the mainstream technology for the IC industry, and is being used in production by leading-edge high-volume manufacturers to support 0.25-mm minimum feature size. Although the exposure system using 193-nm optical lithography is expected to extend to 0.13 mm, the industry remains undecided as to the choice of an exposure system beyond 0.13 mm. The options include extreme ultraviolet (EUV or projection x-ray), e-beam projection, massive parallel direct write, and IX proximity x-ray. The field of lithography will continue to be very dynamic, and demands an authoritative handbook for process development and production to aid in the training of scientists and engineers.
Microlithography and micromachining are also driving microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, which is rapidly developing. Within the next decade the cost of micromachined devices will drop to the point where there will be an explosive demand for these devices for use in such industries as automotive, chemical, aircraft, and disposable medical product. MEMS will also find applications for in-situ process monitoring, environmental health and safety monitoring, and numerous other sensor and actuator systems. Use of lithography for fabrication of many microelectromechanical devices frequently requires processing procedures that range from the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio structures down to ultrafine structures.
There are a number of books on lithography, but there still is a need to compile all the diverse information into an easily accessible handbook-type format. SPIE Press is publishing the Handbook of Microlithography, Micromachining, and Microfabrication in two volumes. Volume 1 is on Microlithography, and Volume 2 is on Micromaching and Microfabrication.
Volume 2 focuses on the process technology and he numerous device applications using micromachining and microfabrication. This handbook will be useful to researchers and engineers who are not specialists in the field and will serve as a reference book for the experts. It will also attempt to collate pertinent available resource information. The material is presented in such a manner as to allow the book to be utilized as both a textbook and reference book. This handbook is intended for use primarily in industrial laboratories, universities, libraries, and manufacturing facilities.
Special thanks must go to my wife, Margaret, for all her expertise with the English language and for her support throughout this project. I would like to thank Mary Barnard, Susan Price, and Ruth Haas for their editing and organization of the book, and Eric Pepper for encouragement to undertake this handbook.