Since the 1970s, the trend in Army aviation has been to rely increasingly on helmetmounted display (HMD) devices or systems to provide the aircrew with pilotage imagery, flight information, and fire control imagery and symbology. The first such system was the AN/PVS-5 series night vision goggle (NVG), circa 1973. This system was the aviation version of the SU-50, the earliest HMD used by the infantry (McLean et al., 1997). It consisted of 2nd generation image intensification ( I2 ) devices “hung” on the existing flight helmet. By 1989, the AN/PVS-5 had been replaced by the AN/AVS-6 Aviator’s Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS) (Figure 1.1), the first I2 HMD designed specifically for Army aviation use. ANVIS is a passive, binocular, 3rd generation I2 system and has improved sensitivity and resolution over the 2nd generation I2 tubes. ANVIS is attached to current Army helmets, e.g., SPH-4B and HGU-56/P, using specially designed mounting brackets. The recent addition of symbology to the standard ANVIS has produced the AN/AVS-7 head-up display (HUD) (Nicholson and Troxel, 1996). A history of I2 HMDs in Army aviation is given by McLean et al. (1997). [Note: There is some disagreement among leaders in the field of HMD research and development as to whether or not ANVIS and its predecessor, the AN/PVS -5 NVG, are “true” HMDs. However, for the purpose of this book, the authors assert that these systems do meet the basic definition of an HMD and do perform the same functions as more prototypical HMDs.]
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