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Chapter 25:
Coherent Imaging Metrology in Life Sciences and Clinical Diagnostics
From all methods of coherent 3D imaging metrology, holography is one of the most widespread techniques in the field of biomedicine. When searching for “superresolution” in electron microscopy, Dennis Gabor invented a universal principle, i.e., a two-step distributed wavefront storage and retrieval method, which he called holography and for which he received the Nobel prize in 1971 (see, for example, Ref. 2). Thus, from its beginnings, holography was related to an important tool in biomedical research. Soon after this principle became applicable with the invention of the laser in 1960, possibilities of biomedical applications were investigated. Because of this universal theory, broad fields of applications were found, ranging from revealing the 3D helical structure of DNA (see, for example, Ref. 4) to shape and fracture analysis in biomechanics (see also Refs. 5 and 6), based on the inherent advantages of holography. Some of the holographic techniques became well-used research tools in biomedical sciences, such as holographic microscopy for cellular structure analysis, including adapted selection of the microscopic evaluation technique (dark/bright field, interference) a posteriori; holographic pattern recognition of biological pollution indicators; and holographic interferometric analysis of 3D distribution of elasticity for tissue characterization.
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