Spectroscopy in the visible atmoderate spectral resolution (∼10 nm) is widely used for color measurments, quality control of food, biomedical analysis, and environmental monitoring. Miniaturization, using micro-optics, could make instruments and sensors smaller, cheaper, and faster (microchemical analysis). Microfabrication technologies like photolithography, resist processing, and reactive ion etching (RIE) are used to manufacture refractive and diffractive micro-optical elements. Micro-optics offers the possibility to integrate different optical functions within one element. Micro-optical elements can be assembled side by side on a substrate to form array optics. Combining micro-optics with micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology adds even more possibilities. In the following we present a grating spectrometer with the submicron diffraction gratings directly fabricated on the surface of refractive microlenses, two miniaturized Fourier transform spectrometers with no moving parts, and a scanning Fourier transform spectrometer in optical MEMS technology.
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