In the semiconductor industry, electrically insulating materials are commonly
called dielectrics. Dielectric thin-film processes are adding processes because they
add a thin layer of dielectric materials to the wafer surface. While the majority of
dielectric thin-film processing is CVD processing, spin-on dielectric processes are
also used in IC manufacturing. The main issues with dielectric thin-film processes
are filling gaps without voids, deposition of uniform film with high throughput, and
making the final surface as planarized as possible.
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