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Plasma processes are widely used in semiconductor processing. For example, all patterned etching in IC fabrication is either a plasma etch or dry etch process. Plasma-enhanced CVD (PECVD) and high-density plasma CVD (HDP-CVD) processes are widely used for dielectric depositions. Ion implanters use plasma sources to generate ions for wafer doping and to provide electrons to neutralize ions on wafer surfaces. Plasmas are also used in physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes, in which metal is sputtered from a target surface by ion bombardment and deposited on a wafer surface. Remote plasma source systems are commonly used in process chamber cleaning, film stripping, and film deposition processes. This chapter covers the basic properties of plasma and its applications in semiconductor processes, focusing mainly on etch and CVD.
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