Most of the functions encountered in introductory analysis belong to the class of elementary functions. This class is composed of polynomials, rational functions, transcendental functions (trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic, and so on), and functions constructed by combining two or more of these functions through addition, multiplication, division, or composition. Beyond these lies a class of special functions important in a variety of engineering and physics applications. Because special functions play such a central role in our analysis throughout the text, we provide in this appendix a brief summary of some of the special functions and their most important properties. A more complete treatment of the subject is provided in L. C. Andrews, Special Functions of Mathematics for Engineers, 2nd ed. (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, Wash.; Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998).
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