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Chapter 4:
Types of LiDAR
As stated in the introduction, LiDAR has a large number of available phenomenologies. There are therefore many types of LiDAR. In this section we briefly discuss a variety of LiDAR types. A traditional method of sorting LiDARs has been direct detection compared to coherent detection. Coherent detection uses a local oscillator and can measure both phase and intensity, whereas direct detection only measures the intensity of the returned signal because no detector can respond to a frequency as high as that of optical signals. This book uses the direct detection versus coherent sorting method but then further divides coherent detection into real beam versus aperturesynthesis– based LiDAR. Direct-detection LiDAR is always restricted to the real beam because, in order to synthesize an aperture larger than the real aperture, it is necessary to capture both phase and amplitude. There are techniques in which the phase is estimated without measuring it; in this case, we could synthesize an aperture larger than the real aperture without actually measuring phase. Aperture synthesis is included the coherent LiDAR section.
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