Technology is sometimes considered to be the handmaiden of science. However one considers their association, it is a close, important, and necessary relationship. Early optical instruments were devised for utilitarian purposes, primarily to aid astronomical observations. These observations, in turn, permitted more accurate measurements of stellar positions to be made, which led to an improved understanding of the passage of light through the atmosphere. From this, it was possible to unlock the mysteries of the rainbow, the colors of the clouds and sky, and other properties of the nature of light. All this took time, of course, and required a continual improvement in optical technology.
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