By the middle of the Seventeenth Century, observations of most of the manifestations of light had been made. The refractive properties had been relegated to a mathematical formula. The finite velocity had been measured. Diffraction and double refraction had been observed, although neither was understood.
Telescopes and microscopes were being constructed with a variety of designs. Moreover, these designs could be based upon knowledge of the passage of light through such systems. The use of these instruments enabled man to discern that the Copernican system made much more sense than a geocentric system.
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