Access to eBooks is limited to institutions that have purchased or currently subscribe to the SPIE eBooks program. eBooks are not available via an individual subscription. SPIE books (print and digital) may be purchased individually on SPIE.Org.

Contact your librarian to recommend SPIE eBooks for your organization.
Chapter 5:
Tissue Structural Properties Studies at Optical Immersion
Many biological tissues are optically anisotropic. Tissue birefringence results primarily from the linear anisotropy of fibrous structures, which form extracellular media. The refractive index of a medium is higher along the length of a fiber than along the cross section [Fig. 45(a)]. A specific tissue structure is a system composed of parallel cylinders that create a uniaxial birefringent medium, with the optic axis parallel to the cylinder axes. This is called birefringence of form. A large variety of tissues, such as eye cornea, tendon, cartilage, eye sclera, dura mater, testis, muscle, nerve, retina, bone, tooth, myelin, etc., exhibit form birefringence. All of these tissues contain uniaxial and∕or biaxial birefringent structures. For instance, in bone and tooth, these are mineralized structures originating from hydroxyapatite crystals, which play an important role in hard tissue birefringence. In particular, dental enamel is an ordered array of such crystals surrounded by a protein/ˆ•lipid/ˆ•water matrix.
Online access to SPIE eBooks is limited to subscribing institutions.

Back to Top