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Chapter 3:
Optical Systems with Annular Pupils

In this chapter, we discuss the imaging properties of a system with an annular pupil in a manner similar to those for a system with a circular pupil. The two-mirror astronomical telescopes discussed in Chapter 6 of Part I are a typical example of an imaging system with an annular pupil. The linear obscuration ratios of some of the well-known telescopes are 0.36 for the 200-inch telescope at Mount Palomar, 0.37 for the 84-inch telescope at the Kitt-Peak observatory, 0.5 for the telescope at the McDonald Observatory, and 0.33 for the Hubble Space Telescope.

Expressions for the PSF, OTF, and encircled, ensquared, and excluded powers are given. The Strehl ratio of an aberrated system is considered and tolerances for primary aberrations are discussed. Symmetry properties of aberrated PSFs are discussed, and pictures of the PSFs for primary aberrations are given as examples. The line of sight of an aberrated system is discussed in terms of the centroid of its PSF. Numerical results are given and compared with the corresponding results for systems with circular pupils wherever possible and appropriate.

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Point spread functions

Imaging systems

Space telescopes


Optical transfer functions


Astronomical telescopes

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