In modern times, satellites have become part of our daily life. Thousands of satellites have been launched into orbit around the Earth and other planets for a number of purposes, such as communications, weather forecasting, navigation, Earth observation, and scientific research. Optical satellites measure reflective light in wavelength ranges from the ultraviolet to the infrared (including near-infrared, middle-infrared, and thermal infrared) to observe the Earth and other planets to acquire information that cannot be easily obtained by other means.
Optical satellites, based on their functions, normally carry the following five types of payloads:
4. Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS), and
5. Light detection and ranging (lidar).
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