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Chapter 13:
Inspection and Testing of Surface Shape and Figure
There are essentially five major surface shapes for optical applications: flat, spherical, cylindrical, aspherical, and diffractive. Each of the surfaces is defined by parameters necessary for its functionality. Deviation in some surface parameters may cause deviation in the wavefront passing through the element (lens, window, or filter) or impinging on the optical surface (mirror), followed by the deviation or failure of the optical assembly.
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