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The development of organic solar cells has almost exclusively focused on optimizing the device performance by studying the influence of device geometry and phase morphology on the photovoltaic response. Efficiencies of ~5% have been achieved and are sufficient for various low-energy applications. The major limitation for widespread applications is the relatively short lifetime of the device manifested in insufficient device stability. One challenge that remains to be resolved is the problem of stability. All organic solar cells are to some extent unstable and degrade over time.
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