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Chapter 11:
Lithography Costs
The high price tags of exposure tools have made the cost of lithography a concern since the advent of projection lithography, and lithography costs may ultimately limit patterning capability, more so than technical feasibility. While there will always be a market for electronics where price is secondary to performance, the large personal computer and portable phone markets have proven to be extremely elastic. To meet the demands of the consumer, lithography will need to be cost effective, in addition to providing technical capability. Lithography costs have several components.
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