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Chapter 13:
Alternative Lithography Techniques
In addition to EUV lithography, a number of other alternatives to optical lithography have been or are being pursued. These alternative techniques have sometimes been called next-generation lithographies, and are frequently referred to by the acronym NGL. A number of alternatives to optical lithography have been conceived, but none (except EUV lithography) has yet been developed to the point that it is ready for implementation in manufacturing. Several of these alternative lithographic techniques—proximity x-ray, electron-beam direct write, electron projection, ion-projection lithography, nanoimprint lithography, and directed selfassembly— are discussed in this chapter. Each of these approaches has technical challenges that must be overcome before they could be usable in semiconductor manufacturing. In this chapter, the basic concepts underlying several of these technologies are discussed, and the challenges that need to be addressed are highlighted.
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