The patterns of integrated circuits are created on wafers by lithography. The steps of this critical manufacturing process are listed in Table 1.1. Each step will be discussed at length in later chapters of this book, but a brief description of each will be given here. Most of this book is devoted to photolithography, where optical methods are used to transfer the circuit patterns from master images - called masks or reticles - to the wafers. Photolithography is the method used for patterning nearly all integrated circuits fabricated today.
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