The publication of Principles of Lithography, Third Edition just five years after the previous edition is evidence of the quickly changing and exciting nature of lithography as applied to the production of integrated circuits and other micro- and nanoscale devices.
This text is intended to serve as an introduction to the science of microlithography, but also covers several subjects in depth, making it useful to the experienced lithographer as well.
Topics directly related to manufacturing tools are addressed, including overlay, the stages of exposure, tools, and light sources. This updated edition reflects recent advances in technology, including the shift of immersion lithography from development into volume manufacturing, and the movement of EUV lithography from the lab to development pilot lines. New references and homework problems are included. It is expected that the reader of this book will have a foundation in basic physics and chemistry. No topics will require knowledge of mathematics beyond elementary calculus.
The need to update Principles of Lithography only five years after the release of the second edition is evidence of the quickly changing and exciting nature of lithography as applied to the production of integrated circuits and other micro- and nanoscale devices. Since the second edition was written, immersion lithography has moved from development into volume manufacturing, double patterning methods have been developed to maintain scaling using optical lithography, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography has started to move from the laboratory to development pilot lines, and there has been a significant increase in skills in many other aspects of lithography. I hope that the readers of this new edition are satisfied with my efforts to explain the salient points of the newly developed technology. For students, I have added more homework problems.
As a practical matter, not every contribution to lithography described in a publication could be referenced, but I do hope that I have properly recognized the work of others, while providing the reader with a tractable and useful list of references.
I would like to thank the many people who contributed to this latest edition of Principles of Lithography, providing figures, papers, and explanations. Specific figures were provided by Lars Liebmann (10.18), David Kyser of Applied Materials (Fig. 7.11), Simi George of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories (Fig. 12.18), David Brandt of Cymer (Fig. 12.17), Hiroko Takeuchi of Nuflare (Fig. 7.6), Norihiro Yamamoto of Spansion (Figs. 7.26 and 7.27), Bruno La Fontaine of Cymer (Figs. 12.1 and 12.2), Stefan Wurm of GLOBALFOUNDRIES (Fig. 12.6),Wolfgang Holzapfel of Heidenhain (Fig. 5.36), Andreas Erdmann from the Fraunhofer Institute (Fig. 5.45), Brigette Wehrmann and Leah Rickman of Suss Microtec (Fig. 5.48), Kafai Lai of IBM (Fig. 8.34), and Paul Nealey from the University of Wisconsin (Fig. 13.20).
Robert L. Brainard of the State University of New York (SUNY), Albany, provided useful information on resists for next-generation lithography. Conversations with Andrew Hazelton of Nikon regarding linewidth control and double patterning were also very useful. Christian Buergel and Fritz Gans of the AMTC supplied information on mask making and inspection. Anna Tchikoulaeva and Paul Ackmann of GLOBALFOUNDRIES provided constructive suggestions to improve the chapter on masks and reticles. Joe Daggett from Sumika provided useful information on adhesion promotion. Assistance with EUV transmission calculations from Erik Gulliksen of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories was most appreciated. Discussions with Uzodinma Okoroanyanwu of GLOBALFOUNDRIES were helpful for understanding pinhole formation in ultrathin resists. Yuansheng Ma, also from GLOBALFOUNDRIES, helped significantly with the section on resist line-edge roughness. Vito Dai of GLOBALFOUNDRIES supplied expert advice on data handling for direct-write lithography. Copies of useful references were provided by Banqui Wu of Applied Materials, John Burnett of NIST, and Bert Jan Kampherbeek of MAPPER. Christian Wagner of ASML helped to clarify some subtle issues regarding EUV lithography. Eli Dagan explained the status of mask-making tools at Applied Materials. Gavin Rider generously provided information on electrostatic damage to masks. Winfried Kaiser of Carl Zeiss helped to clarify issues relating to high-performance optics. Timothy Groves of SUNY, Albany, provided useful explanations and information on aspects of electron-beam lithography. Fabian Pease, Edward Sebesta, and John Burnett pointed out specific errors in prior editions, which I hope have now been corrected.
I continue to appreciate those people who provided figures and information for the earlier editions.
I would like to thank Jerry Sanders, founder of Advanced Micro Devices, whose commitment to excellence enabled many of the ideas in this book to be discovered, learned, and applied by individual engineers in service to the customer.
Finally, I would like to thank my wife, Laurie, for her continuing, saintly patience and support.
Harry J. Levinson