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Civil structures (e.g., bridges and buildings) exist to address people’s needs and simplify life. In the same way, mechanical parts and components (e.g., shafts, fasteners, springs, weldments, etc.) for cars, motorbikes, planes, and various machines are currently used to solve practical problems and to increase comfort. In all cases, structures and mechanical components were designed after considering their primary function and the particular problem that they are intended to solve. These structures and components are the consequence of a designing process performed by multidisciplinary teams composed of engineers, designers, researchers, technicians, etc. In addition, the resulting product must be functional, safe, reliable, competitive, usable, manufacturable, and marketable. This chapter addresses some aspects to be considered during the design of a mechanical part in order to meet requirements - primarily safety and reliability because many applications are related to human and environmental safety (ecology). For this reason, the following sections show readers how work conditions could influence the performance and mechanical integrity of a part, thus causing an accident due to lack of corrective actions. Finally, the chapter presents the standard techniques used to perform nondestructive testing (NDT), emphasizing optical techniques (especially in speckle methods).
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