When a flaw is created by an indentation force, the flaw has a residual stress associated with it at the crack tip. This is true for almost all processes, whether induced artificially, accidentally, or in manufacturing processes. Without any applied stress, a residual stress intensity field exists, similar to that produced by the applied stress. Again, removing the singularity caused by the infinitesimal value of crack radius, and for unit consistency, we introduce the residual stress intensity factor.
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