Spatial information, which can be carried by a coherent electromagnetic wave, is 2D in nature. The first part of this chapter is focused on this issue and it is shown that despite its 2D nature, the wave can be properly coded to carry adequate information for creating the perception of a 3D scene. One possible encoding scheme is the holographic recording. It is shown how a thin hologram can record such a wave but the information is degraded if more than one wave is recorded on the same hologram. This problem can be mitigated by recording the information in thick media. The enhanced information-recording capacity of thick holograms is analyzed in detail, and some specific examples are provided to demonstrate various effects, in particular the conventional Bragg selectivity and a higher degree of selectivity due to the generalized Bragg selectivity, which also includes effects such as a motion blur. In the last part of the chapter, the holographic process is set in the paraxial domain and a complete holographic architecture is analyzed. The compact expressions derived are directly applicable to the analysis of volume holographic processes and the deterioration of the holographic reconstruction quality is derived as a function of the deviations from the recording parameters.
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