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Gallium nitride (GaN)-based technology has been successfully applied for: (1) high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) that can withstand high critical electric fields (~3.5 MV/cm) and operate at high saturation velocity (3 × 107 cm/s), (2) efficient ultraviolet-visible light-emitting diodes, and, more recently, for (3) advanced near-infrared devices operating in the terahertz regime by utilizing intersubband levels in AlGaN/GaN superlattices (SLs), as described below.
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